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時間:2012-05-16 13:19來源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:論文哥代寫 點擊:
法律assignment怎么寫?如何寫好Law assignment?law assignment的寫作格式是什么?論文哥代寫,專業代寫留學生作業。


法律assignment怎么寫?如何寫好Law assignment?law assignment的寫作格式是什么?
先為大家提供一個法律assignment 的寫作例子:
 

The Effectiveness of Law Enforcement in Combating Child Sexual Abusein Sri Lanka

Introduction

Children are the future of a country and should be specially protected, since they are delicate as flowers and vulnerable. Yet, it is a sad reality that child sexual abuse is a widely practiced crime in Sri Lanka. It is however not a widely and openly discussed topic and many would not want to accept the high prevalence of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka. However, the existence of this social evil cannot be denied based on the vast data gathered by certain institutions dedicated to protecting children and also by law enforcement authorities. Statistics show that approximately 10% of girls and 20% of boys are sexually abused in their own homes and schools, by teachers, parents or someone known to them.

Child sexual abuse could be defined as sexual abuse of a child by an adult or some other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is used for sexual stimulation of another person. In addition to overt sexual interactions, child sexual abuse also includes invitations or requests by an adult regarding sexual forms of kissing, hugging and any other sexual activities. (Wikipedia)

In an act of child abuse, an adult, who is physically and mentally stronger than a child takes undue advantage of these factors and uses his power over the child to gratify his sexual desires. Statistics show that in Sri Lanka, the most common perpetrators of this crime are the immediate or extended family members of the child or persons well known to the child, who have won the trust of the child and/ or the child's parents. A variety of economic, social and cultural factors contribute towards child sexual abuse. Poverty is by far the most common factor contributing towards sexual exploitation of children.

Sexual abuse could leave deep psychological scars in a child, which could keep affecting the child even for many years or even a whole life time after the incident. It can also bring physical defects requiring medical treatment. Hence, this is a grave crime, which needs to be given special attention.

Prevention is the better way of eradicating child abuse. However, once a crime is committed, the next alternative is to strictly enforce the law and ensure that perpetrators are put behind bars and penalized for the grave crime they have committed. Onehttp://livesitehelp.com/flzy/<标题>  intention behind jailing such a criminal is to ensure that s/he does not continue to commit the same crime, by restricting her/his freedom of movement. Another intention is to deter others from committing such crimes due to the fear of the punishment. Another objective would be to rehabilitate the offender.

The Sri Lankan legal system has a quite comprehensive set of laws to deal with child sexual abusers. The minimum penalty is seven years and the maximum can go up to twenty years.

There are different institutions like the National Child Protection Authority, Escape, The Police Women's and Children's Bureau, Department of Probation and Child Care etc. to which a child victim could make a complaint, which will be reported to the police from there. However, the effectiveness of these law enforcement mechanisms in combating child sexual abuse still remains a question.

Purpose of the study

There are various social, cultural and economic factors directly affecting the effectiveness of law enforcement against child sexual abuse. In many instances, the family members of the victim do not want to pursue a legal remedy to the injustice done to their child. This is very often http://livesitehelp.com/flzy/ the case when the perpetrator is a close family member. In many instances where case is filed by the Police, the child witness either refuses to give evidence in court or gives false evidence in court, changing his/her previous statements given to the Police and disrupting the system of justice. There could be many reasons for this type of response from the victims and their families.

<标题> One reason could be the cultural stigma attached to child sexual abuse. Very often, an abused child is cornered in his/her own family, among relatives, in school etc. The society also begins to look at such a child and his/her family in a different manner and hence makes it very difficult for the child to be rehabilitated. The child is often made to feel responsible for the evil that happened to him/ her and is left to feel ashamed and guilty of the grave crime that has happened to him/ her.

<标题> Another reason could be the fear of loosing the only breadwinner of a family. This could happen when the act of abuse is committed by the father of the child. Taking action against him would mean loosing the only hope of an income.

<标题> It could also be that child victims are threatened by the perpetrators not to take legal action against them. Threatening is a common weapon used by the abusers to frighten their target children and continue to commit that crime.

<标题> When commercial sexual exploitation is done, the child is allowed to be abused by pedophiles etc with the consent of his/her parents and even with the consent of the child, for economic benefit. Hence, in such situations, unless a concerned outsider makes a complaint to the Police, the perpetrators will successfully escape the legal framework. Even if they are caught, the willingness of the child and his/her family to give evidence will be very poor.

Another common situation where the risk of child abuse is high is where mothers leave their children with their husbands and find employment abroad. The fathers of such children live in a very small shelter, together with their female children http://livesitehelp.com/flzy/ and miss the sexual relationship with their wives. Hence, they often feel that they have the right to use their children to fulfill their sexual needs, since they see their children as their own property. Some others, while accepting that such use of his child is a grave crime, yet fails to control his desires, thereby committing this grave crime.

<标题> In these situations, the child often has no one to complain and is also threatened by the father not to complain or brain washed by the father to believe that the act done is acceptable.

Many Sri Lankans have the mind set that even if they see acts of abuse happening within a household they should keep quiet, since that it is considered a private matter of that family.

When child sexual abuse is done by persons like teachers, priests, and others holding a respected position in society, there again may be an attempt to solve the matter amicably and keep it undercover to protect the goodwill of the institution involved.

The tedious and long process involved in getting a legal remedy has also contributed to the unwillingness of people to come to court. No special sanctity is given to child witness during the cross examination and the child is forced to explain in detail the painful process of his/ her experience, while facing the ridicule of heavy cross examination. Due to the backlog of cases in Sri Lanka, often it takes many years for a child abuse case to conclude and this affects the child witness, whose circumstances may change within this duration and therefore may change her/his mind as to giving evidence.

<标题> There might be many other social, cultural and economic factors affecting the effectiveness of law enforcement in child abuse cases.

Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effectiveness of law enforcement to combat child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka by analyzing all the factors that affect law enforcement and thereby deriving a set of recommendations as to how to overcome these problems.

Research Questions
•How effective is law enforcement in combating child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka?
•How social, economic and cultural factors affect the law enforcement against child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka?
Research Objectives
•To understand the nature of complaints received of child sexual abuse.
•To study how effectively the law is enforced against child sexual offenders in those circumstances.
•To study the impediments that http://livesitehelp.com/flzy/ exists for the effective law enforcement against child sexual abuse.
•To analyze these various factors that negatively affect law enforcement, taking a multi disciplinary approach.
•To form a conclusion about the effectiveness of law enforcement in combating child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka.
•To make recommendations as to how law enforcement could be made more effective in combating child sexual abuse.
Significance of the study
<标题> Child sexual abuse is a grave crime committed against children, who are the future of a nation. Sri Lanka, like most of the other nations in the world have subscribed to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1990 and produced the Sri Lankan edition of the Children's Charter in 1992. These recognize the right of every child to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life etc. Hence, Sri Lanka is legally bound to protect children from crimes such as sexual abuse by maintaining due legal safeguards.

However, the sad reality is that this legal obligation, although quite comprehensively met by legislation is not being able to be fulfilled in the enforcement of these legislations. The factors affecting the effective enforcement of laws to combat child sexual abuse are far ranging, multi disciplinary, inter connected and complex.

However, there is a lack of research done within Sri Lanka to analyze this problem and come up with viable solutions.

<标题> Hence, this thesis aims to make a contribution to fill this gap by researching this problem and producing a comprehensive analysis and a set of recommendations to overcome it.

Review of related Literature

Literature will be reviewed related to child sexual abuse, its causes, impact and law enforcement, mainly http://livesitehelp.com/flzy/ of Sri Lanka and where applicable, of other countries. The National Child Protection Authority (NCPA) has published several books on child abuse and relevant books will be reviewed. There are articles published by various authors such as Professor Harendra De Silva, founder Chairman of the NCPA and those which are meeting the research objective will be reviewed.

Scope of the study

<标题> This research will only cover the situation of Sri Lanka. However, there is a lack of comprehensive literature on this topic produced in Sri Lanka and therefore literature from other countries will be reviewed, if it is relevant and applicable to the Sri Lankan context and the research objectives.

As the time frame for the entire research and preparation of the thesis is six months, this research will be done by concentrating on real examples of child sexual abuse cases from few chosen areas of the country, being the areas from which the highest numbers of complaints have been received. An appropriate sample as mentioned under the section ‘methodology' will be chosen to represent the population of Sri Lanka.

Methodology

This research will mainly use Qualitative Research Methods. The reason being, the nature of the research question, purpose and the objectives, which require deep, detailed and descriptive fact finding and reasoning. This cannot be achieved through quantitative data, but requires a qualitative approach. The main qualitative research tool used will be interviews.

Detailed interviews will be conducted with the representatives of the main institutional actors engaged in combating child sexual abuse and law enforcement in the country. These are; Attorney General's Department, National Child Protection Authority, Escape http://livesitehelp.com/flzy/ and Department of Probation and Child Care. The objective of these interviews is to learn the experiences and views of these institutions on the effectiveness of law enforcement against child sexual abuse.

For ethical reasons, child abuse victims or their families will not be interviewed for this research. However, without divulging the identities of the victims, details of a sample of 30 victims will be obtained from the documented information of the above mentioned institutions.

These 30 victims will be proportionately chosen from the 5 districts from which the most number of child sexual abuse complaints have been received by these institutions. The effectiveness of law enforcement in the situations of these victims will be analyzed in detail.

<标题> The detailed information obtained from the above mentioned institutions and the real life scenarios of the sample victims will be analyzed in detail in order to arrive at a conclusion.

法律assignment怎么寫?如何寫好Law assignment?law assignment的寫作格式是什么?論文哥代寫(http://livesitehelp.com/ )專業代寫留學生論文,留學生作業,服務范圍主要包括電子專業作業、社會學專業作業、語言學專業作業、財務專業作業、計算機專業作業、法律專業作業、市場營銷專業作業等學科作業。詳情請咨詢電話 13917206902

一般歐美國家作業(Assignment)通常分為兩種形式:
1.是文章(Essay)
2.是報告(Report)
二者在形式上有所差別,但大體相同。通常學校發的論文寫作規定會對一篇Assignment寫成事Essay還是Report格式會作出明確要求。所以在閱讀題目要求的時候,務必盡量仔細,否則會因為格式扣分。
 
兩種格式的【相同】之處:
1、字體:Times New Roman,字號:小四,行距:1.5倍。請有寫作之前就把這些格式調好,以避免寫好后再調節,會造成不必要的麻煩。
2、段落之間空一行,每段不要求像中文寫作那樣空兩格,而是直接【頂格】寫。
 
兩種格式的【不同】之處:
一、Essay:
Essay的寫作相對Report要簡單一些。通常只包括三個部分:
1.緒論(Introduction):包括選題(topic)的背景介紹和文章要解決的主要問題,通常占總字數的10%左右;
2.主體(Main Body):占總字數80%左右,如果題目中作了具體要求,就根據題目提到的幾個方面來逐一討論就可以了。有的題目沒有作具體要求,就根據自己的構思來寫。但要求有邏輯性;
3.結論(Conclusion):占10%,在這一段里把文章中的主要觀點用一到兩句話概括出來。
Essay 可以不寫題目,【不要】把小標題加粗。代寫essay Reference的寫作是兩種形式都要涉及的。留學生作業
 
二、Report:

它的寫法大體上和essay差不多,但要求要嚴格一些。
1、標題頁:包括標題和executive summary. 在Executive summary中是對文章的摘要,這兩個部分一般是單獨占一頁。
2、主體部分:Report的主體部分,前三個和essay差不多,只是在conclusion后還有一部分就是recommendations.是對提出的問題的建議。
如果題目中沒有單獨要求,一般就按照這幾部分來寫,但有的題目會作出 規定。請按題目要求寫哪幾部分來寫。
Reference

<标题> Reference 是老師最看重的,所以請一定注意。

1、 不管前面的主體部分最后一頁剩多少空格,reference都要另起一頁寫;
2、 每條reference之間要空一行。如果一條reference一排寫不完,那么下面的幾排提行時要和第一排三格。基本格式請參照我發過來的referencing 里面的要求;
3、 References 的排列要按字母順序排列。可以用網址的reference放在最后;
4、 H引用分為直接引用和間接引用。直接引用就是用了文章或書中的原話。請在出現的作者后面以(年代,頁碼)的形式標注。沒有出現作者就在引用的句子后面用(作者名,年代,頁碼)的形式標注。間接引用就是參照發文章或書中的觀點,引用方法與直接引用形式一樣,只是不需要標注頁碼;
總之referencesq絕對不能出現編造的情況,一定要真實。國外對這個問題查得很嚴。代寫essay一旦查出有作假或抄襲情況,客戶就要被開除學籍,且需要賠款。
 
寫作注意事項:
 
1、文章里禁止用縮寫,例如:can’t, don’t, didn’t, wouldn’t 應該寫成cannot,do not,did not, would not。
2、每段之間空一行,首句不空格
3、避免用口語詞匯和表達方法,例如:a little bit,well…I will talk about….
4、避免使用太過生僻的詞語,但用詞要專業
5、不要從句套從句,句子如果過長,就改成短句,這樣意思表達更清楚
6、文章的INTRODUCTION要闡明自己的觀點和立場,也就是你的THESIS STATEMENT,盡量不要在文章或段落的開頭使用問句。
7、專業知識和詞匯使用要正確
8、文章字數控制在規定字數內,不得多于或少于150
9、舉例非常重要,但是要符合論點
10、按照文章要求寫,沒有要求Abstract或者標題的就不用寫。
11、行距1.5倍,Basic Font:Times New Roman 12pt
12、文章里禁止使用第一人稱或第二人稱,保持論證的客觀性

<标题> Reference的重要性:

【禁止抄襲】國外對于版權和他人的知識版權的保護非常重視,如果非法摘抄他人的作品肯能會引起法律責任。學校會有一個掃描文章系統,收到的文章都要上傳到學校的網上然后由工作人員統一進行掃描。掃描系統非常龐大代寫essay,它連接了各個國家的主要電子圖書館,所以一般你能抄到的東西,他都可以掃描出來,如果掃描結果顯示你抄襲的文章字數超過你文章總數的10%,責證明你整篇文章都是抄襲的。比如你文章字數是1000字,那么如果掃描由101字是抄的。
什么是抄襲? 引用和摘抄他人的idea,文章(就算一句話),沒有做references的或者格式錯誤的reference都算抄襲!
Reference種類
1.in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference;
2.在文章最后出現的reference, 也就是reference list。
寫一篇論文,2種reference【都要出現】,也就是說做完in-text reference,還要做最后的reference list。

<标题> Reference的格式

詳見英文版。
Reference wizard 網站:
進入個網站,只要按照他要求的內容輸入,他的系統會自動生成一個完整的reference,不過那只是reference list,不是in-text reference. In-text reference 還是需要自己完成。另外那個網站只能提供簡單格式的reference,復雜的reference還是需要參考英文版文件。
一般來說一份1000字的文章,至少需要8個references,2000字需要12-15個左右,因為國內的英文出版物有限,各位可以到國外大學圖書館的網站上照著相關的書,然后安上去就好了。(關于這個數量問題,根據我的經驗,可以不一定嚴格要求,但不能太少。一般1000字的寫4個或5個,2000字的寫10個左右。當然如果你本來就有這么多個的話就更好了。我這里說的是最少情況)
 
論文寫作要求
 
Abstract (序);
1-2段;
字數為文章的的10-15%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么abstract一般寫200-300字, 除非特殊要求
Abstract的目的就是讓讀者知道你的在你的文章里寫了些什么;
Abstract的開頭要用1-2自己的語言總結和解釋文章的題目,簡單來說就是用自己的話把文章的題目寫一遍
Abstract細節是概括你在你的文章里都寫了什么,每個論點就用2-3句話總結;
Abstract的結尾就是寫總結和延伸你的所有論點和整個的大標題;
不是每篇作業都要求寫abstract,一般情況下都不要求,除非老師特殊寫明要寫abstract。
 
Introduction(開頭)
字數為文章總數的10%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么introduction一般寫200-250字
Introduction只用一段即可,不可以分成2段寫
Introduction的第1-2句是解釋文章題目,單來說就是用自己的話把文章的題目寫一遍
接下來的用2句話左右介紹一下文章題目代寫essay的背景
Introduction主要是寫你將要在你的文章里寫些什么,用2-3句話來概括所有In this easy, firstly, I will discuss…, and then I will…, thirdly, I will…的論點,每個論點用幾個詞即可,例如:
一般來說,老師給的題目都很寬,可以寫很多方面,但是你要選其中一點來寫,這樣文章才能討論的深入,如果文章寫的很籠統的話,肯定會不合格
Introduction最后不需要總結句
 
Body(文章的討論部分,也是文章的主體)
每一個論點都必須用一段來寫,換句話說,每個段落只能出現一個論點,出現2個會被扣分;
在body的部分里不能出現I,he,she等人稱,除在舉例中;
每一段話都有要introduction,explanation,examples。接下來重點講這4部分如何寫;
Introduction:用1-2句寫你這段的主要的論點或者是idea;
Explanation:用1-2句解釋你的論點;
Examples:舉例支持你的論點,這部分要重點寫,舉例在文章中很重要,舉例可以用名人說的話,專業的文章里例子,或者自己的親身經歷。有時老師會要求要用自己的親身經歷作為例子;
Body一般有3-6個論點,如果文章的字數在1000-3000字,所以body就一般有2-6段,每段最好是有聯系,層層深入。
 
Conclusion
字數為文章總數的10%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么conclusion一般寫200-250字;
Conclusion只用一段即可,不可以分成2段寫;
Conclusion的第1-2句是解釋文章題目,簡單來說就是用自己的話把文章的題目寫一遍;

法律assignment怎么寫?如何寫好Law assignment?law assignment的寫作格式是什么?論文哥代寫(http://livesitehelp.com/ )專業代寫留學生論文,留學生作業,服務范圍主要包括電子專業作業、社會學專業作業、語言學專業作業、財務專業作業、計算機專業作業、法律專業作業、市場營銷專業作業等學科作業。詳情請咨詢電話 13917206902

 

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