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Advanced Management of Information Systems (AMIS)Written Ind

時間:2015-11-14 16:12來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
我們要應采用技術來控制技術,通過技術來管理來保護計算環境。可以采取許多措施,使組織可以最大限度地減少風險的間諜軟件的威脅。
1.0 Executive Summary執行摘要

本報告的目的是介紹間諜軟件和它的相關性與現代企業。間諜軟件是程序可以偷偷記錄并監控用戶的數據。
間諜軟件可能會破壞一個企業通過外部的侵擾性能。它可以包含公司數據,侵犯隱私,干擾了市場營銷過程中,除去主要的免費軟件,并導致帶寬消耗。然而,間諜軟件還可以在一個企業的發展起到了積極的作用。這將有利于公司和消費者之間的溝通。
總而言之,一方面是,現代組織可以采取一些有效的措施,以避免間諜軟件的攻擊。在另一方面,用人間諜軟件時,企業應注意隱私問題,以及平衡隱私的侵犯及其員工的績效。

The purpose of this report is to introduce the spyware and its relevance with modern business. Spyware involves programs that could furtively record and monitor the user’s data. 
The spyware could undermine the performance of a business through external invasion. It might comprise company data, invasion of privacy, interfere with marketing process, remove primary freeware, and cause bandwidth consumption. Nonetheless, the spyware could also play a positive role in the growth of a business. It would facilitate the communication between the company and its consumers. 
All in all, on the one hand, modern organizations could take some effective measures to avoid the attack of spyware. On the other hand, when employing spyware, organizations should pay attention to the privacy issues, as well as balance the invasion of privacy and their employees’ performance. 
2.0 Definition of Spyware 間諜軟件的定制

The increasing hazards faced by Internet users are problems of security and privacy. Different from direct attacks of viruses, these threats are indirect penetration of monitoring programs installed without users’ knowledge (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). Spyware is defined as programs that (1) supervise the activities of a computer user, (2) capture data related to the user, as well as (3) store the information and divulge it to a third party (Ames, 2004). It involves Adware, Key Loggers as well as Trojan Horses (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). According to a report from Microsoft (2004), it affected over 50% of Windows operating system failures. Furthermore, Moshchuk et al. (2005) found out that spyware existed in 13.4% of the 21,200 executables in their study, and ‘drive-by download’ attacks took up 5.9% of the Web pages. However, some companies introduce spyware to the commercial use. It not only plays a critical role in the interpretation of their customers, but also can supervise the behaviors of their employees. Therefore, although it is a newly emerging phenomenon, spyware exerts immediate and extensive influence on the Internet community, whether threatening security or facilitating business functions. 
 
3.0 Overview of Spyware 間諜軟件的概述

Spyware was first found around the late 1990s. The term ‘spyware’ came out in October 1995, and were referred as tiny, hidden cameras (Lava Soft, n.d.). Elf Bowling was one of the early programs of spyware. It first appeared during the Christmas holiday in 1999, in the form of a silly free game. However, it actually stole and reported personal information to its developers (Tuneup Adviser, n.d.).  In the same year, Steven Gibson detected suspicious advertising software on his computer and developed the first ant-spyware, OptOut. Since then, more types of spyware emerged, with more complex forms and leading to more complex solutions. 
Individuals or organizations use spyware to find out the computing habit of another individual. According to Ames (2004), there are three levels of spyware. The first level concerns basic cookies. They allow the site to identify the user when he/she revisit, and they also permit an association between the user and data he/she provided before. Since these cookies would be convenient for users, they are considered as low risky ones. The second level involves associated cookies. They track users’ activity and note down users’ interaction with their member sites. These data would be shared with a third party, while users would be unaware of the whole process. The third level of spyware is on the basis of application, which will cause severe security problems and risk. Users generally fail to limit application-based spyware. It can implement upgrades, install other applications and produce advertising without the authorization of users. As a result, the last two levels of spyware would cause security issues. 
Spyware can be adopted for commercial destinations. Business can apply it to gather consumer data (Foster, 2002), which is especially prevalent in the e-commerce circles. Some business can recommend new software features by offering an active spyware-like application on consumer computers (Anonymous, 2004). However, hackers use spyware to realize their attacks and deliver deferred spam (Stafford and Urbaczewski, 2004). In addition, they would employ spyware to steal information of identity. The illegal application of spyware would infringe privacy and appropriate personal information furtively. Worse more, spyware combined backdoor Trojan spammers would attack a computer or web server, and make it to deliver e-mail for them (Hinde, 2004).  (責任編輯:cinq)
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