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澳洲作業:The importance of leadership領導的重要性

時間:2014-10-05 10:13來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
領導者所發揮的主要作用是影響他人,包括改變他們的小組成員或下屬的態度或行動。此外,領導是目標改變與特定目標等行為或態度。通過集中的影響的核心作用,領導涉及雙向通信
澳洲作業:The importance of leadership領導的重要性 
 
Leader is defined as “an individual within a group or an organization who has the most influence over others” (Outhwaite, 2003), and leadership is widely accepted as “a process whereby one individual influences other groups members toward the attainment of defined group or organizational goals.” According to this definition, there are three key characteristics of leadership. First of all, the primary role a leader played is to influence others, including changes the attitudes or actions of their group members or subordinates (Winston, 2001). Besides, leadership is goal directed— changing others actions or attitude related to specific goals (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2004). Moreover, by focusing on the central role of influence, leadership involves two-way communications (Neck & Moorhead, 1995). In contrast to leadership is followership (Haslam et al., 2011) and leader also influenced by their subordinates (Winston, 2001). 
Generally, the importance of effective leadership is widely accepted and it is proofed as the key to effective organizational performance (Aswathappa, 2010). In all cases, leadership plays the role in identifying, developing and using the potential within an organisation, which aims to raise the level of operational efficiency and ethical aspiration all the people in an organisation (Schedlitzki, 2014). Besides, a leader not only pushes his followers toward the organisational goals, but also allocates needed resources, guides and motivates subordinates to achieve the goals (Winston, 2001). What is more, Hickman (1990) states that compared to managers, leaders make more contribution to guiding organisations in terms of competitive advantage and enduring results. 
More specifically, in addition to the power of influencing, leadership plays different roles within an organisation thereby impacting the organisational behaviour deeply. The basic role that leaders play is decision making role (Yukl, 1989). The traditional autocratic decision-making style of leadership usually stifles employee creativity by conducting the supervision process rooted in the management function (Kanter, 1983). A more effectiveness concerned by researchers (e.g. Lawler, 1986) is the participative leadership. However, the success depends on the subordinates’ motivation and self-efficiency. Hence, the effectiveness of leaders’ decision making role depends on the characteristics of the problem or task. Besides the decision making role of leadership, a rough categorisation divides the day-to-day function of leadership into two roles (Schedlitzki & Edwards, 2014). First one is the task roles, which emphases on problem identification and solution, involving member monitoring and resource allocation to ensure the accomplishment of task (Adler & Gundersen, 2007), The second is social roles, which emphases on the people orientation, involving interpersonal relationship which aims to build group cohesion hence improving the quality of working life (Robin & Judge, 2012).  
However, Aycan et al. (2014) argue that these three basic functions of leadership do not capture the transformational and charismatic nature of leadership but have deeper impacts contemporary on the organisational behaviour in large organisations. In these cases, effective leaders conduct multiple tasks, including identifying the deficiencies of operation and potential opportunities, even sometime to achieve the goals at personal sacrifice. These behaviours are always regarded as charismatic role (Conger & Kanungo, 1998). Therefore, researchers has put forward two new types of influencing process—transactional influence process and transformational influence process (e.g. Conger & Kanungo, 1998). The leaders encourage followers perform required behaviours through rewards while the leaders achieve organisational goals by changing the followers’ attitudes and values. 
 
References
Adler, N. J., & Gundersen, A. (2007). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Cengage Learning.
Aswathappa, K. (2010). Organisational Behaviour. Text Cases Games, Himalaya Publishing House
Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (2014). Organizations and Management in Cross-cultural Context. Sage.
Conger, J. A.  & Kaungo, R.N. (livesitehelp.com/azlw/ 1998), Charismatic leadership in organisations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Halssam, S.A., Reicher, S.D. and Platow, M.j. (2011) The new psychology of leadership, Psychology Press, London. 
Kanter, R.M. (1983), The change masters: innovation for productivity in the American Corporation. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Lawler, E.E. (1986), high involvement management: participative strategies for improving organisational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (責任編輯:admin)
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