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發展政治學:Politics of Development

時間:2016-02-04 09:24來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
隨著國際社會對食品援助已經在三種糧食援助的作用進行了評價,很顯然在國際社會中,不同的組件,包括國際組織,非政府組織和國家發展的更多合作。
國際社會包括統計數據,非政府組織(NGO),其他國際組織,等等,誰都有共同的責任,并在解決發展問題,如饑荒(法斯賓德,2009年),其中存在的義務。饑荒被定義為糧食供應和權利,從而導致廣泛的發病率的降低,它最初是由流程和事件(唐寧,1990年)的順序引起的。據德瓦爾(1991年),饑荒在理論上是可以預防的,無論從它的根部或處理問題,但國際社會需要各種資源。他們用來對付饑荒最常用的方法是糧食援助。作為它的積極工具災荒救濟工作有效,而它的收件人產生幾種令人沮喪的結果,以及(粘土,1996年),糧食援助可以算是。本文將評估國際社會是否已經通過對三種類型的糧食援助饑荒解決有效合作,他們是緊急情況,計劃和項目糧食援助。
International community includes stats, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), other international organisations,and so on, who have common duties and obligations existing among them in solving development problems, like famine(Fassbender, 2009). Famine is defined as the reduction of food availability and entitlement, and result in widespread morbidity, which was originally caused by a sequence of processes and events(Downing, 1990). According to de Waal (1991),famine is preventable in theory, no matter from its root or process, but it needs various resources from the international community. The most common approach they used to combat famine is food aid. Food aid can be regarded as a positive tool for it works effectively in famine relief, while it produces several dismal results for recipients as well (Clay, 1996). This essay will evaluate whether the international community has worked effectively in solving famine through analysing three types of food aid, they are emergency, program, and project food aid.
 
主要有三種類型的糧食援助,國際社會在饑荒的國家實施。首先,緊急糧食援助,這往往是在危機時期,如沖突和災難中。非政府組織和世界糧食計劃署(WFP)是主要的管理員這種援助,通過實物糧食援助受危機影響的人免費發放。其次,節目糧食援助,商品被直接傳送至接收方政府或其他代理人雙邊(巴雷特和麥克斯韋,2005)。通常情況下,條件通常相關聯,并且它通常被用于解決長期饑荒。政府就是在這種糧食援助的核心部分。最后,項目糧食援助,這是捐贈,以支持通過非政府組織和政府間組織特定項目,是關系到進一步促進經濟和農業development.This實物糧食援助的主要屬性,以防止未來的饑荒。There are mainly three types of food aid that international community implemented in famine countries. First, emergency food aid,which is often used in times of crisis, such as conflict and disaster. NGOs and World Food Program (WFP) are the main administrators in this aid, through freely distributing in-kind food aid to crisis-affected people. Second, program food aid, commodities is delivered directly to a recipient government or other agents bilaterally (Barrett & Maxwell, 2005). Typically, conditionality is often associated, and it is commonly used to solve the long-term famine. Governments are the core part in this kind of food aid. Finally, project food aid, which is donated to support particular projects through NGOs and IGOs, and is related to promoting further economic and agricultural development.This kind of food aid mainly attributes to prevent future famine.
 
In terms of the emergency food aid, which can be called relief food aid, is mainly a food-based aid. Because of immediate crisis threats to lives and short-term stability, emergency food aid is considered as the most effective and efficient method to implement(OECD, 2006). In such an urgent situation, international community cooperate with governments of affected countries together to organise various resources to support the frontline of famine. For example, famine in Africa during 1991 to 1993, assistances provided by IGOs and NGOs moved quickly in limiting the ifluencess of famine on the people’slivelihoods and containing suffering. Emergency food aid also acts asan essential part in saving lives in famine. According to a recent survey, most of emergency food aid met the primary objective of feeding lives temporary, even in a further case, it maintains and improve nutritional status (ALNAP, 2004). Additionally, although emergency food aid with large scale is only examined systematically for a short time, it was operated in southern Africa’s famine in the 1980s to 1990s with necessary influences in death prevention. However, there are several shortcomings existed in response to famines. The late arrival of emergency food aid sometimes obstructs famine recovery(Murphy & McAfee, 2005). For example, the USA averagelytakes five months to ship its aid to the destination, which resulted in less rapid response to the famine. Also because of the poor transfer efficiency between national and regional areas, emergency food aid could not target the most affected refugees. (責任編輯:anne)
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