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國際組織International Organisations

時間:2016-03-23 12:08來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
本文將討論非國家行為者是否有效和有效的環境問題,在透明性和開放性,非國家行為者的貢獻和適當性。
目前,全球環境治理的高度依賴信息,關于環境問題的國家政策和行動,國際組織和非國家行為體(NSA)(哈斯,1990)。在全球化和全球治理等有許多的奇怪的理論家,和奈觀察所產生的非國家行為體在全球范圍的作用,特別是對環境問題。非國家行為者(NSA)可以被描述為在全球水平的演員,這是不是美國的代表(Higgott、昂德希爾&比埃勒,2000)。它包括國際組織、非政府組織、商業部門、認知社區和其他類別(藝術,2005)。因為世界已成為生態相互依存的,如生物多樣性的環境問題,污染正成為釣魚的全球性問題,因此,越來越多的非國家行為者的數量對環境問題采取行動。在這篇文章的核心部分,首先,國際組織,非政府組織和商業部門將被評估為有效和有效的關于捕鯨,污染和其他問題。然后,非政府組織和國際組織將被評估為效率低下和無效的外部和內部方面。Currently, the global environmental governance highly relies on the information, policies and actions about environmental issues by states, international organisations and non-state actors (NSAs) (Haas, 1990). Many theorists on globalization and global governance such as Keohane, Strange, and Nye observe arising role of non-state actors in the global area, especially on the environmental issues. Non-state actors (NSAs) can be described as the actors that operate at the global level, which are not the representatives of states (Higgott, Underhill, & Bieler, 2000). It includes international organisations, non-governmental organisations, business sectors, epistemic communities and other categories (Arts, 2005). Since the world has become ecologically interdependent, environmental issues such as biodiversity, fishingand pollution are becoming the global issues, thus, increasing number of non-state actors take actions on the environmental issues. This essay will discuss whether the non-state actors are efficient and effective on environmental issues, in terms of transparency and openness, contribution and appropriateness of non-state actors. In the core part of this essay, first, international organisations, NGOs and business sectors will be evaluated as efficient and effective on the issues of whaling, pollution and others. Then, NGOs and international organisations will be assessed as inefficient and ineffective on the external and internal aspects.
 
國際捕鯨委員會(IWC),最古老的國際組織之一,成立于1948年。它的工作原理在國際資源和環境管理領域。自1960年代中期,國際捕鯨委員會已作出了巨大的努力,并成功地形成節約型的前景和IWC內的強大和科學話語,這使得它高效的在這個領域(米切爾,1998年)。根據IWC的方向,日益激烈的環境運動積極游說。此外,國際捕鯨委員會內的科學家直接呼吁市民,他們主張停止鯨的枯竭。The International Whaling Commission (IWC), one of the oldest international organisations, founded in 1948. It works in the field of international resource and environmental management. Since the mid-1960s, the IWC has taken great efforts and succeeded in forming a conservation-oriented outlook and a stronger and scientific discourse within the IWC, which make it efficient and effective in this area (Mitchell, 1998). Under the direction of the IWC, an increasingly intense environmental movement lobbied actively. Additionally, scientists within the IWC appealed directly to the public, they advocated stopping the depletion of whales. According to Holt (1985), saving the whale becomes the test of one nation’s political ability to stop the environmental destruction. With tremendous support among the public, the whale became a major symbol of the environmental movement, the public calls for a moratorium of commercial whaling was successful, which was adopted at the Stockholm conference in 1972(Kobayashi, 2006). The reason why this environmental campaign was so successful led by the IWC can be illustrated in two points. First, its conservation-oriented approach, which shows the IWC was on the right course. It is easier and accessible to encourage people to involve in with a slogan like ‘save the whale’ than publish scientific statements on whale issue. For example, this environmental movement influenced the US most, it would be safe to confirm that the anti-whaling norm has internalised in the US in 1978 (Baily, 2008). Second, the IWC’s effectively use of environmental movement in its projects. The IWC made NGO participation and lobbying increased from a handful size in 1972 to 57 in 1982 in the area of whaling(Guevara, 2008). Moreover, the IWC made itself as an open organisation to encourage green movement. According to Andresen (1998), the startling numbers of environmental groups were carried out under the advocacy of the IWC. 
 
In sum, norms, knowledge, and institutional design all shed light on the efficient and effective operation of the IWC. When knowledge of scientists and norms of environmental movement goes together, the IWC can be influential. The institutional design of the IWC also explains the influence of the IWC. As far as transparency and openness are concerned, it is obvious that the IWC shared its information and experts’ knowledge with the public to make it popular in the environmental movement. Therefore, the IWC attracted more NGOs to advocate the idea of stop whaling, which embody itself as an open organisation in this area. The second criterion to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the IWC is its contribution. It successfully calls for the moratorium on commercial whaling and made it adopted at the global conference. It led other actors to pay attention to the whaling issue and made this issue a concern at the global level. The last criterion is appropriateness. In the initial times, whaling nations and whaling industries only looked to the short-term profit, which resulted in the shortage of whale stock. Then the IWC appeared as the leadership to fight against this environmental issue, which was indeed the right time.  (責任編輯:anne)
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