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新西蘭碩士課程論文:研究20世紀70年代和20世紀80年代的冷戰Cold War in the 1970s and 19

時間:2016-11-10 11:22來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
在這篇文章中,研究了于20世紀70年代和80年代的冷戰階段。
根據定義,冷戰指的是1947 - 1991年(第二次世界大戰后)的時期,超級大國(弗萊明,1961年),即美國和蘇聯之間的政治和軍事緊張狀態, 。 事實上,戰斗陣線和重點在不同階段是不同的。
By definition, the cold war refers tothe period 1947-1991 (after World War II) where a state of political and military tension between super powers(Fleming, 1961),namely the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as their respective allies. Indeed, the fighting fronts and focus were differentduring different stages.
In this article, we focus on the stage of cold war in the 1970s and 1980s. The interpretation will be presented infour key schemes(Westad, 2013).
I. Ideological Divide一,思想分歧
事實上,美國和蘇聯在資本主義和共產主義之間的意識形態差異被認為是冷戰的出現的主要原因。 在20世紀70年代和80年代,兩國使用各種方式,包括經濟制裁和軍事戰爭,如美國的越南戰爭和蘇聯的阿富汗戰爭,在各國之間傳播他們各自的意識形態。Indeed, the ideological difference between the U.S. and the USSR,between the capitalism and the communism, is considered as the key reason of the emergence of the cold war. In the 1970s and 1980s, both powers used various ways, including economic sanctions and military wars such as the Vietnam War by the United States and the Afghanistan war by the Soviet Union, to spread their respective ideology among other countries.

 

II. National Expansion國家擴張

 

由于納粹德國在歐洲的崩潰和亞洲的帝國日本的崩潰,在第二次世界大戰后創造了顯著的政治真空。 因此,全球政治地圖已經完全改變(Maier,1977)。自1945年以來,國家擴張已成為美國和蘇聯的關鍵重點之一(Brands,1994)。 在20世紀70年代和80年代,兩國在軍事,空間,經濟和科學等各個領域都大幅度擴張。 例如,1969年美國在1966年響應蘇聯歷史上第一次載人航天飛行,成功登陸月球。
As a result of the collapses of the Nazi Germany in Europe and imperial Japan in Asia,significantpolitical vacuums were created after the World War II. Hence, the global political map had been totally changed(Maier, 1977).Since 1945, national expansion had become one of the key focuses for both the United States and the Soviet Union(Brands, 1994). In the 1970s and 1980s, both countries expanded drastically in various fields, including military, space, economy and science. For instance, the successful landing on the moon was achieved by the United Statesin 1969,in responding to the first ever manned space flight in the history by the Soviet Union in 1966.
III. Militarization
Due to the World War II, enormous militarization was achieved by various countries, including Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan and China.As the two super powers then, the United States and the Soviet Union actually increased the military budgetafter the end of theWorld War II, instead of reducing it, to defend their territory,as well as their spheres of influence(Chomsky, 1996).The United States air and naval bases were spreading throughout the world while the Soviet Union possessed the most powerful ground force (a part of this force actuallystayed in the East Germany for more than a decade).

 

IV. Economic Hegemony經濟霸權

 

Due to the severe devastation suffered by the Soviet Union as a result of the invasion by Nazi Germany, the United States established an economic hegemony since the 1950s, with the Bretton Woods Conference as the landmark. As a result, the United States wanted a dominant role economically and politically. However, the Soviet Union would never want dependence on the United States in any means. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Union had recovered from the war devastation and tried to break the American economic hegemony by loans and aids to the allies. Nevertheless, this policy had a negative effect on its domestic economy and is considered as oneof the key reasons of the Era of Stagnation in the mid-1970s(Rutland, 2009).
In conclusion, the cold war in the 1970s and 1980s is a key stage in the history of 20th century. In this article, interpretation of this era is presented in four key schemes, including ideological divide, national expansion, militarization and American economic hegemony.

 

References文獻
 
BRANDS, H. W. 1994. The devil we knew: Americans and the Cold War, Oxford University Press.
CHOMSKY, N. 1996. World orders, old and new, Columbia University Press.
FLEMING, D. F. 1961. The Cold War and Its Origins: 1917-1960. 1950-1960, Doubleday.
MAIER, C. S. 1977. The politics of productivity: foundations of American international economic policy after World War II. International Organization, 31, 607-633. (責任編輯:anne)
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