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澳洲語言專業留學生論文范文:Application of Functional Equivalence Theory i

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在現代商業社會,廣告隨處可見。隨著經濟全球化的進行,各國產品開始在世界范圍內流通,廣告的翻譯對產品的宣傳與推廣都起到了至關重要的作用。廣告本身作為產品的一種主要促
澳洲語言專業留學生論文范文:Application of Functional Equivalence Theory in Advertisement Translation Abstract:
Advertisements can be seen everywhere in the commercial society. With the economic globalization, products from different countries are competing in the international markets; therefore, advertisement translation plays an important role in the publicity and spread of the products.
As a main method of promoting sales, the main purpose of advertisements is to draw consumers’ attention and stimulate them to purchase the product or service. Although many people have done many researches in the field of advertisement translation, it also needs several theoretical improvements. Different schools hold different views on the guiding principle of advertisement translation. This thesis holds the view that Functional Equivalence Theory should be viewed as the main principle of translating advertisements, which depends on the unique features of advertisements. The application of Functional Equivalence Theory in advertisement translation should be achieved at three levels, namely, lexical, syntactic and rhetorical level. This paper, from the perspective of Linguistics, connecting Translation, attempts to study advertisement translation on the basis of Functional Equivalence Theory, put forward by Nida, and deduce some practical methods of advertisement translation under the guidance of it, hoping to give some theoretical and methodological reference for advertisement translation.
Key Words:Linguistic; functional equivalence; advertisement translation Table of contents
1. Introduction
1 1.1 General Introduction
1 1.2 Literature review
1 1.3 Thesis Statement 3
2. Advertisement Development and Features of 5
2.1 The development of advertisement 5
2.2 Features of Advertisement Language
6 3. Three Requirements for Functional Equivalence Theory Applied in Advertisement Translatio 3.1 Naturalness 9 3.2 Accuracy 10 3. 3 Conciseness 10 4. Strategies for Advertisement Translation 12 4.1 Equivalence at Lexical Level 12
4.2 Equivalence at Syntactic Level 13 4.3 Equivalence at Rhetoric Level 14 5. Conclusion 16 Works Cited 18 1. Introduction 1.1 General Introduction It is well known that advertisements have become a very important and indispensable part of our life. Nowadays, we live in a world full of advertisements. We can see them everywhere. It is a main method of promoting products or services. The main function of advertising is informing and persuading. Advertisement translation, as a type of communication, is receiving more and more attention than ever before. Advertisement is a practical text style, quite different from common literary works, with a very unique purpose of attracting consumers’ interest and persuading them to take action. As we all know, no matter in what way to translate the advertisements, this only purpose has never changed. However, many advertisements are still translated under the guidance of traditional theories; little attention has been paid to the purpose of the advertisement. Many obvious problems exist in the translation. Firstly, a lot of advertisement translation adapts a word-to-word translation approach. The order and meaning of the source language is faithfully preserved without considering the features in advertisement language.
Moreover, the principle of translation is source-text-oriented, without considering the purpose of the advertisement language. Therefore, the translation is inadequate. The translated versions of advertisements are very hard to be understood or accepted by consumers, needless to say informing and persuading. Under these circumstances, the function and purpose of advertisement language should be paid more attention. It is necessary to search for a theory to guide the advertisement translation under which the strategies should be researched to show their applicability. The “Functional Equivalence Theory” is just the right one.
1.2 Literature review After centuries of heated debates about literal and free translation, scholars in the 1950s and 1960s began to attempt more systematic analysis of translation. The most prominent issue was about meaning and equivalence. P. Newmark holds that translation theory derives from comparative linguistics and sociolinguistics, which investigates the social registers of language and the problems of languages in contact in the same or neighboring countries. After his careful observation of translation process, he proposes “semantic translation” and “communicative translation” (Newmark 38). Although there are quite a lot of differences between semantic translation and communicative translation, they have something in common at a more general level: both of them require that “the translator has to respect and work on the form of the source language text as the only material basis for his work” (Newmark 39).
In comparison with Newmark’s translation theory in which linguistic analysis is taken only as an approach to achieving translation purposes, Catford lays his translation theory entirely on the base of linguistics. He defines translation as the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL) and puts forward “formal correspondence” and “textual equivalence”. He holds that “since translation has to do with language, the analysis and description of translation must make considerable use of categories set up for the description language. It must, in other words, draw upon a theory of language---a general linguistic theory” (Catford 1). While Eugene A. Nida and Taber think “translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message” (Nida & Taber 37) Nida defines translating, the process of translation as “decoding the meaning of a text in one language and encoding it into a different language, often reflecting a quite different culture.” He classifies Catford’s linguistics-based translation theory as a “strictly linguistic approach to translating”, which focuses much upon the structures of source and target language (Nida 7).
In order to overcome the narrowness of this approach, he proposes a communication theory of translating, in which focus is given upon the source, the form, the content of the message, the receptors, the setting of the communication, the media, and so on, instead of mere verbal message, in order to achieve the purpose of verbal communication. Therefore, the closest natural equivalent must be found to match the message in SL text. Such kind of equivalence is named by Nida as Functional Equivalence, which means that the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it substantially in the same manner as the receptors in the source language. Functional theories in 1970s and 1980s mark a move toward a functionalist and communicative approach to the analysis of translation. The functional equivalence theory of Nida is tremendously influential since his work is the move towards a functional definition of meaning where a word is meaningful only in its cultural context. The functional equivalence theory has widely been applied to the study of translation works, and these studies are mainly focused on literature translation. Functional Equivalence Theory must be based on analysis of the message embedded in source and target languages.
In other words, no functional equivalence can be achieved without adequate analysis of the languages involved in translation process. To sum up, the traditional studies of advertisement translation are mainly included in literature translation, which investigate the style of advertisements through analysis of the lexical and syntactic features and probe into the translation approaches with contrast between the English and Chinese styles of advertisements. Unfortunately, it is largely neglected to study the translation of product advertisements in relation to the theory of functional equivalence. This thesis tries to link the wording of advertisements with its actual context and meaning, and attempts to examine how functional equivalence is reflected in the translation of advertisements in the hope of deepening the understanding of advertisement translation and the theory of functional equivalence. 澳洲語言專業留學生論文范文1.3 Thesis Statement Since the author pointed the importance of the advertisement translation above, there are some problems we are faced with in the process of translating.
Different schools hold different views on the principle of advertisement translation. This paper will focus on Eugene Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory and introduce this theory in detail and give some examples at the same time. And the author will analyze the current strategies of advertisement translation. Moreover, this paper will list two reasons and cite many examples to illustrate that functional equivalence should be viewed as the principle of advertisement translation. This paper will further argue that functional equivalence could be achieved at three levels in advertising translation, namely, lexical, syntactic and rhetoric level. At last, the author will conclude that Functional Equivalence Theory is the main principle in advertisement translation. 2. Advertisement Development and Features of Advertisement Language Advertisement is around us all the time. Whenever we read a newspaper or a magazine, on the TV, or on the computer and so on, we are confronted with advertisements.
However, how is advertisement developed? What are the functions and language features of advertisement? And what are the methods applied in advertisement translation? These are the questions which we must have a good understanding. 2.1 The development of advertisement The embryonic form of advertising in the world is street cries, which exist even today. The origin of advertisement dates back to thousands of years ago when the first known methods of advertising was an outdoor display, usually a sign or an announcement on the wall of a building. Such primitive advertisements offered various commodities for sale and rent. Advertising was not unknown in ancient Greece and Rome, but advertising as were cognize did not start until the seventeenth century in the West. It was at about this time that newspaper began to circulate. Before that, it is printing which was first invented in China and then introduced to the West that played a vital role in the production of print advertising. Small types of advertising were dominant before the nineteenth century and the style and language used in ads at that time tended to be direct and informative. The Industrial Revolution, which began in England in the mid-1700s and reached the United States by the early 1800s, facilitated mass-production of goods. Meanwhile, advertising became more and more important in the industrial market. The great breakthrough for advertising came only in the late nineteenth century.
Technology and mass-production techniques were then sufficiently developed for more firms to be able to turn out products of roughly the same quality and at roughly the same price. This brought on a crisis of over-production and under-consumption which meant that the market needed to be stimulated by advertising. In the 1 950s, television came to our life which developed so fast that it became the main media to spread the advertisements. Today advertising is playing a more and more important role in our daily lives. As China is deepening its opening up to the outside world, especially after joining WTO, the international economic activities develop rapidly and the international advertisements also need to keep the pace of development. As a result, advertisement has grown vigorously, so there is a strong need for efficient international advertising communication.
Our daily life has been greatly changed by it. Advertisements have seeped into nearly every aspect of our life, and there is no doubt that our attitudes, values and knowledge all have been affected by them to some degree. As time goes by, more and more advertisements appear to us and a good translation of them to open the door to commercial communication is a must. 2.2 Features of Advertisement Language Advertisement language features are very special, because of its unique purpose, so it is necessary for us to make it clear before we begin to translate them. 2.2.1 Lexical Features Since the key role of advertisement is to persuade the potential consumers to know the utmost quality of the product and have a need for them, thus the lexical features of advertisement are greatly different from that of other types of writing. First, creating new words to attract attention is the main feature in advertisement language by misspelling and free-compounding. In advertisements, advertisers sometimes misspell some words deliberately so as to reach the aim of attracting readers’ attention and enhancing them to take action. For example, 百“衣”百順(百依百順)--- a creative slogan about iron, which vividly describes the characteristic of the production directly and motivates the consumers to wonder more about the information of it and maybe consumers are all curious about whether the quality of it is real or not so they have potential motivation to have a try. New words and phrases coined by means of imitation or by free compounding are invariably met in advertisements. Many words in advertisements, especially in trade names, are words newly coined, or deliberately misspelled and abbreviated. The case in this point is the advertisement about a cigarette named Marlboro, which is abbreviated by the sentence--- “Man Always Remember Love Because Of Romantic Occasion”.
This newly-created word has already been accepted by most of people and everyone can be attracted by the beautiful sentence and remember this new brand easily. Another example is about a juice advertisement: “the Orangemostest Drink in the world”. This newly coined word “Orangemostest” is deliberately created by the advertiser, which consists of three parts: orange, most and est. It is well known and welcomed by the old and the young for its nutrition and high quality.
Two superlatives “most” and “est” are added to orange so as to stress the best quality of this product. Creating new words of this kind is used intentionally to suggest that the product being advertised possesses some special qualities as well as the value of creativity and interest. Second, in advertisements, flexible use of compound can be found everywhere in advertisements. As the composing parts can belong to any word class and their combination is not restricted to the word order, its usage is flexible and changeable. For example: “From a heavyweight, comes the latest lightweight”--- an earphone designed by Sony. These two antonym compounds “heavyweight” and “lightweight” highlight the quality of this production and the flexible use of compounds of this kind can make the advertising language colloquial, thus leaving a particular impression on readers’ mind. 2.2.2 Syntactic features “Advertising language is required to be precise and it has its own characteristics in syntax compared with other types of writing” (Baker 49). In the following, the author will elaborate them in detail.
The pattern of simple sentence is the most prominent feature in advertisement, like imperative sentence and elliptical sentence. “Imperatives sending out appeals, suggestions or requests are concise and forceful, which can contribute to triggering a ready response among the readers” (Bell 77). For example: “Take TOSHIBA, take the world”----“ 擁有東芝,擁有世界”. “Obey your thirst”. “服從你的渴望(雪碧)”. Advertisement language must be persuasive and economical which requires that advertisers should use direct and brief language. In order to carry as much information in a most concise manner, the admen normally make good use of elliptical sentences. Usually, an ellipse can be a sentence that omits object, predicate or other components. For example: “Connecting People. (Nokia) 科技以人為本.” “Safe, Easy, Quick and with Fun” ---- This is an expression made up of three adjectives and an adverbial group.
It can be comprehended like this:Using this production is safe, easy, quick and with fun. Compared with the changed one with the original one, it is easy to find that the elliptical sentences are more brief and forceful, thus more fascinating to readers. 2.2.3 Rhetorical features Rhetoric may serve several functions in advertisement, like attracting attentions, generating a positive mood, or communicating the essence of a message in a fast and effective way vividly. Moreover, the creative use of rhetoric in advertising language may result in advertisements which are emotionally alive, intellectually appealing and unforgettable. Repetition and metaphor are the main techniques using in advertisement language.
Repetition is used to emphasize a point and leave readers a great and deep impression. For example: “You can’t Xerox a Xerox on a Xerox”---Xerox copier. In this advertisement, “Xerox” is repeated 3 times. The repetition of the word leaves a deep impression on its readers and urges them to discover more about the product advertised. Also, metaphor is widely used in advertisement language. Advertisements become more appealing and eye-catching with the help of it, just like a glasses advertisement--- “Featherwater, light as a feather” (Featherwater 眼鏡,輕如羽毛). In general, advertisement language is quite different from other genres. In order to be concise, simple and easy to remember, it has its own linguistic features on lexical, syntactic and rhetoric levels respectively. 3. Three Requirements for Functional Equivalence Theory Applied in Advertisement Translation The soul of all principles and standards is “faithfulness”. Acknowledging the vital importance of “faithfulness”, Eugene A. Nida proposed a new principle of translation---functional equivalence, which aims at producing a translation which is the closest natural equivalent to the original message, so as to be as distinctly understood and strongly felt by the target language receptors as by the source language receptors.
His concept of translation is expressed in the following statement, “translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”(Nida 12). In the concept of closest natural equivalent, it also has three requirements in guiding the translation. 3.1 Naturalness Nida’s functional equivalence requires that ‘‘translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (Nida & Taber 12). By “natural”, Nida explains that “the best translation does not sound like a translation” (Nida&Taber 13). In advertising translating, in order to get rid of “translationese” (Katan 9), which means that in translation version, a strong feeling about word-for-word transformation let readers feel strange and incomprehensible. Being natural is the first priority of realizing functional equivalence in advertising translating and it’s a must to let target audience acceptable, so we should use a natural translation version so as to avoid any trace of strangeness in grammar and style in the translations. The ignorance of common expressions in English advertising may lead to the occurrence of “Chinglish”.
For example, the translation of the Chinese phrase “保質期” is in confusion in China.
Some people translated it into “preservation period” or “quality guarantee period”, which are not natural at a11. Some foreigners may feel confused when they see this translation and the idiomatic English expressions for it are “shelf life” or “storage life”. Because of the cultural differences between China and American, this problem is very usual and can be found everywhere around us. As an admen, what you pursuit is to let readers know the information of your products exactly and have passion and interest to buy them, so misunderstanding and confusions about your products must have a negative influence on your products; thus, your advertisement translation must be a failure. 3.2 Accuracy By the word “accuracy” we mean that the advertising translation should transmit the message of the source language correctly. Otherwise the message would be distorted and would be difficult to realize functional equivalence. The original translation was trying to preserve formal correspondence of the original, therefore,the translation is rigid. The example shows this problem----in translating the advertisement “Connecting People. (Nokia)” with the meaning “連接你我”, thus, which cannot express the actual quality of the Nokia mobile phone. No matter what kind of cellophanes can achieve at this level and let readers have nothing serious about it, while this translation version “科技以人為本”, which can exactly describe the attractive features of this brand. It is the best choice. 3. 3 Conciseness
The conciseness of advertising translation demands that the translated version should both be simple and brief, brief in wording and simple in syntax. Since advertising is to face audience with different educational backgrounds; the use of uncommon words, big words and complex sentences will hinder them from quick understanding, thus impossible to stimulate their interest for the products. For example: Source text: “Night of Olay is a special night cream, created to make the most of the magic of the night. It is greaseless and remarkably light to touch, a sheer pleasure on your skin, allowing it to breathe naturally while it absorbs this special nighttime nourishment.
Hour after quiet hour all through the night, Night of Olay enhances your skin’s own natural renewal by bathing it in continuous moisture, easing tiny dry wrinkle lines and encouraging the regeneration of softer younger looking skin”.
The original translation: “玉蘭油晚霜是一種在夜間使用的特別護膚霜,能充分發揮夜間的魔力,不含油脂,輕柔舒適,讓肌膚一面呼吸一面吸收玉蘭油晚霜的特別營養。一夜之中,每時每刻,玉蘭油晚霜是您的肌膚始終保持濕潤,增強皮膚的自然再生能力,舒展細微的皺紋,讓您的皮膚顯得更輕柔,更年輕。” Because of always word-for-word translation, the translated version seems tedious and difficult to read, thus having greatly ruined its communicative functions.
The revised version: “玉蘭油晚霜淋漓展現夜間特殊護理,它清爽無油,神奇獨特,令肌膚無比愉悅,自然暢快呼吸,盡享Olay精心滋養。分分秒秒維持肌膚水潤細致,舒展干燥皺紋 ,是肌膚煥發青春魅力。”
The concise the content is, the more powerful it is actually and make it easy to let consumers remember all the features of the products. 4. Strategies for Advertisement Translation The main purposes and functions of advertising are to convey message, arouse readers’ desires, and persuade them to purchase the commodities. The special purpose and functions of advertising decide that advertisement translation is quite different from translation of other types of writing.
Therefore, as a special text type, advertisement translation shall satisfy the requirement of promoting functions and unique purpose, aiming at meeting the need of its target readers and adapting to their target languages and culture. To a certain degree, functional equivalence serves to reduce one of the main obstacles occurring in the translation progress, namely, the different culture between the source language and target language.
The greater the differences in language and culture, the greater the difficulties in comprehension are. That is to say, the less culture-specific a text is, the less need there will be for its structure to be adapted, so it is the main direction and guidance in advertisement translation. 4.1 Equivalence at Lexical Level In English Advertising, the words and phrases employed are usually simple and short. Its main lexical features can be summarized as the flexible use of adjectives and verbs.
First, verbs in English advertisement play an essential role in attracting the reader’s attention and persuading the reader to get action. Moreover, verbs have strong effect of making speech or writing brief and concise. One practical way of translating verbs is to transform them into other parts of speech. By doing so, the translation sounds natural to those native speakers. For an English verb, generally it is used to transforming into a noun. Here are several examples to illustrate this point: “The product is elegant in style and simple to handle. (該產品式樣雅致,操作簡便).” “Our design aims at automatic operation, easy regulation, simple maintenance and high productivity. (我們設計的目的在于自動操作,調節方便,維護簡易,生產率高).”
Second, adjectives, which are descriptive and full of emotions, can easily arouse the readers’ interests and persuade them to know the excellent qualities of a product or service. Therefore, they are also widely applied in advertisement translation. Especially that the use of comparative and superlative degrees is highly active in advertising. However, the choice of adjectives is quite different between Chinese and English advertisements. Generally speaking, many Chinese advertisements are used to adopting the strategies of “four-character structure”. The popularity of “four-character phrases” is rooted in the peculiarity of Chinese character. On the contrary, as an alphabetic language, English attaches great importance to syllable and stress rather than rhyme. Besides that, English has strict syntactic structures and fixed lexical form, adding or omitting words will lead to ambiguity in meaning.
Due to the differences, under the guidance of the principle of functional equivalence, the English version should be put into the typical Chinese way so as to make the target readers comfortable. Accordingly, many adjectives or adjective phrases in English advertisements have been translated into four-character phrases, just as the following examples: Attractive and durable 美觀耐用 Clear and distinctive清晰突出 Elegant and graceful典雅大方 Simple to handle 操作簡便 Elegant in style 樣式雅致 Beautiful in color色澤艷麗 Convenient to cook烹制簡便. So when we meet such expressions in translation, we only need to find their equivalents in the target language to let target audience feel familiar. 4.2 Equivalence at Syntactic Level In terms of the characteristics on the syntactical level, the Chinese language extends several “minor-clauses in a linear way without a focus”.
Constructed by flowing phrase chunks and based on a sense of logic, the Chinese structure connects clauses according to chronological or logical order. The structure seems short and loose, and the focus of the sentence doesn’t fix on one point rigidly, instead, it moves in accordance with the logical order and the changing rhythm. Unlike the Chinese structure, English sentence displays a spatial arrangement with the verb as a center. It is made up of verb central elements and the form determines the meaning. Revolving around the verbs, English sentences unfold with modifiers in a hierarchical order, thus they are exact, precise and rigid. In translation, we must arrange sentences conforming to the target norms and conventions. For example: Source text: “Adidas gave birth to a new idea in sports shoes. And the people who wear our shoes have been running and winning ever since.”
Translation: “阿迪達斯是對運動鞋一個全新的闡釋,從此在人生的跑道上,讓人們勇往直前,所向披靡,戰無不勝。” Obviously, the original structure of the English advertisement is made up of two sentences, each of which is centered on a verb, with a long sentence behind. The structure of the Chinese advertisement is loose with many short phrases. The sentences in the source text are arranged in a different order in the target text. By doing so, the translation reflects linguistic features of the Chinese language, and therefore the translation is successful in both content and function. 4.3 Equivalence at Rhetoric Level Rhetoric is one of the important strategies often used to capture readers’ attention.
Rhetorical devices are often used by the advertisement designers to get the readers to notice their advertisements either for purposes of immediate action or to make the readers have a more favorable idea about the advertised product or service. In above part, we have mentioned the frequently used rhetorical figures in advertising language. In the following, the author is going to illustrate how functional equivalence be achieved at rhetorical level.
For example: an advertisement “A friend in need is a friend indeed” (速效救心丸). This is a case of successful functional equivalence translation of the personification in advertisement. The aim of using personification here is to stress the necessity for the patients to have this medicine. The loss of one minute will lead to the failure in business. In this translation, the translator choose to use “friends” around to show the importance of this drugs and let patients actually feel that this product just like the friends of mine so I must bring them along me all day long. The conversion of the image in the original personification in the target language gives the audience of the translated version the naturalness of expressions and the fluency in reading. Judging from these aspects, the translated version fulfills the function of that the original version does, thus making it a successful one.
Nida’s functional equivalence theory put emphasis on cultural factors in translation. In his view, “the most serious mistakes in translating are usually made not because of verbal inadequacy, but of wrong cultural assumptions” (Nida 29). He argues that translation should aim at “complete naturalness of expression, and tries to relate the receptor to modes of behavior relevant within the context of his own culture” (Nida 159). Cultural factors are of great importance in advertisement translation. Nida claims that “for truly successful translating, biculturalism is even more important than bilingualism and cultural factors in translating are more significant than the purely linguistic differences” (Nida 202). It’s impossible to fully understand an advertisement without a truly understanding of its culture. 5. Conclusion As a main method of promoting products or services, advertisement becomes more and more important in the commercial society. It not only bears attention value and readability, but also has persuasive power. The main purpose and function of advertisement is to motivate the target audience to take action and buy the promoted products. The advertisement translation makes the advertisement fulfill its function in the international market. However, the language and cultural diversity in the world makes it difficult for people to understand each other, thus the translation of advertisements becomes necessary. Functional translation theories made a breakthrough in the traditional translation field, which had been dominated by equivalence theory for a long time, focusing on the target text and its functionality in the target culture. In this thesis, the author holds the view that Functional Equivalence Theory should be employed as the principle of advertisement translation. Functional Equivalence Theory, which is instructive and effective, has been used to guide advertisement translation.
In order to achieve the equivalent readers’ response, translation shall be target reader oriented, including target language oriented and target culture oriented. Based on Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory, “if a more or less literal correspondence is functionally equivalent in both designative and associative meaning, then obviously no adaptation is needed” (Nida 125) and direct transfer is adopted. Because Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory requires that “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closet natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” and by “natural” ((Nida & Taber 12), the author pointed that a good translation version must be equivalent at three aspects---lexical, syntactic and rhetoric to meet the requirements of the theory, and achieve the purpose of letting consumers have a better comprehension of the products. Nida explains that “the best translation does not sound like a translation” ((Nida & Taber 13). In addition, Nida also points out that “to preserve the content of the message, the form must be changed”, so this paper showed the features of advertisement translation must be natural, accurate and concise, avoiding the word-to-word translation and have a breakthrough in translating advertisements. All in all, the author has endeavored on suggesting a series of feasible ways to solve the problems existing in advertisement translation on the basis of Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory. Many successful examples have proved that the Functional Equivalence Theory is the best choice applied in advertisement translation.
This thesis may provide some help in the understanding and application in advertisement translation. In spite of all the efforts made by the definitive and exhaustive, there are still some limitations of this thesis.
With more and more researches and discusses onto these topics, advertisement translation is sure to have more developments in the future. Works Cited Baker, M.. In Other Words: A coursebook on translation. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000. Bassnett, Susan. Translation Studies (Revised Edition). New York: Methuuen Co. Ltd. 1988. Catford, J.C.. A linguistic theory of translation. London: Oxford University Press, 1965. Katan, D.. Translating Cultures: An Introduction for Translators, Interpreters and Mediators. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2004. Newmark, P.. A Textbook of Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2001. Newmark, P.. Approaches to Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign language Education Press, 2001. Nida, Eugene A.. Language, Culture, and Translating. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1993. Nida, E. A. & C. Taber. The theory and Practice of Translation. Brill Lyden, 1974. Bell, Rojer T.. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. Longman, London and New York, 1991. Shuttleworth, Mark, and Moira Cowie. Dictionary of Translation Study. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2004. Williams, J, and A. Chesterman. The Map: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research in Translation Studies. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2004. (責任編輯:admin)
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