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歐元區危機下歐洲福利國家的困境

時間:2016-01-28 09:23來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
對歐洲國家來說,在福利國家做一個小的削減是更好的,它可以改變目前的福利困境,并沒有強大的民間怨恨。
Abstract摘要
 
歐洲是福利國家的發祥地,因其高福利政策和良好的社會保障而受到世界的高度贊揚。然而,金融危機席卷全球,歐元區危機對歐洲經濟的挑戰,整個歐洲的社會保障體系。他們的福利制度在深水中。近年來,我國社會保障制度在一個時期的發展和改革中一直處于一個發展和改革的階段。因此,研究歐洲福利制度的困境,尤其是在歐債危機下,對我國的社會福利制度的困境具有重要的借鑒意義和啟示意義。
Europe is the birthplace of the welfare state, it has been praised by the world for its high welfare policy and excellent social security. However, after the financial crisis swept the world, eurozone crisis which attacks European economic challenges the whole European social security system. Their welfare systems are in deep water. In recent years, Chinese social security has been in a period of development and reform. Therefore, researching on the predicament of European welfare system especially under the euro debt crisis is an important reference and an enlightenment of meanings to China.
我對歐洲國家的福利模式進行了系統回顧,將其分為四部分:東、西、北、南。然后,我選了一個代表從每個部分和研究他們。我用福利經濟學理論和博弈論分析數據,最后我將歐洲福利國家與美國的福利國家進行比較,以便找到歐洲國家如何改變其政策和改革福利國家。得出的結論是,歐洲政府應該逐步減少福利支出,同時更注重政策對激活如工作條件效益因素,
I performed a systematic review on European countries’ welfare models, classifying them into four parts: East, West, North and South. Then I selected a representative from each part and studied them. I used welfare economics theory and game theory to analyse data, finally I compare European welfare states as a whole with American welfare states in order to find how can European countries change their policies and reform their welfare states. The conclusion is that European government should gradually reduce welfare spending, meanwhile focus more policies on activations factors such as work conditional benefit,
 
Introduction介紹
 
歐洲債務危機,全稱是歐洲主權債務危機,意味著自主權債務危機發生在一些歐洲國家的2009。這是美國次貸危機的延續和深化。其原因在于政府的債務負擔太多,遠遠超出政府的容忍范圍。因此違約風險發生。The European debt crisis, the full name is European sovereign debt crisis, means that since 2009 the sovereign debt crisis happened in some European countries. It is a continuation and deepening of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis. Its reason is that there are too many debt burdens on the government, far exceeding governmental tolerance range. So the risk of default occurred.
In the early Wall Street financial crisis in October 2008, the Nordic Icelandic sovereign debt problems came to the fore. Then the debt crisis happened in the Middle East area, given the small economies of these countries and timely international aids, the sovereign debt problems had not lead to a greater global financial turmoil.
In December 2009, the Greek sovereign debt crisis issue was highlighted. In March 2010, it became worse. The debt crisis began to spread in five European countries, namely Spain, Greece, Ireland, Italy and Portugal. Meanwhile, the three major U.S. rating agencies downgraded Greece and other debtors’ credit rating constantly which made people worry about the whole Europe credit. Finally, the eurozone crisis broke out.
 
Under the terrible eurozone crisis, it is difficult to maintain high level welfare policies for most European countries. In addition to the harsh economic environment, welfare states have features of rigid expansion, all of them cause the European welfare systems to be locked in the horns of a dilemma.
This article will explain what the dilemma eurozone countries are facing with. It is a policy making problem rather than an economical problem. In fact, the dilemma of policy is originally from the common currency dilemma that there are different states with diversed economic level in the whole European Union. In the past, if one country lost its competitiveness of export or energy of economy, it could devalue the currency to stimulate the economy. However, when the common currency policy came into force, the former measure was disappeared. So the countries merged into crisis have to reduce wages of workers and decrease the costs while people are opposed to it. How to balance the economic and people’s feelings becomes the critical part. 
The study begins with introducing typical European social welfare regimes. It is based on the Esping Andersen’s idea: The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. The man classified welfare states into three types, they are “Liberal welfare states, Conservative corporatist welfare states and Social-democratic welfare states ”. The main features of the liberal welfare states are “means-tested assistance, modest universal transfers or modest social-insurance plans” “Benefits cater mainly to a clientele of low-income, usually working class, state dependants.” In it, the “limits of welfare equal the marginal propensity to opt for welfare instead of work. Entitlement rules are therefor strict and often associated with stigma; benefits are typically modest.”The examples of it are the Australia, United State and Canada . The second one, so called “conservative/corporatist welfare states”, which emphasizes on social insurance not the social assistance.  As the Esping Anderson analysed, in the “conservative welfare state”, all of the contributions and benefits is not distributed equally, because of the individual’s insurance is different, it is based on income for each person. In other words, it is quite like the Bismark model.“…the corporatist regimes are also typically shaped by the Church, and hence strongly committed to the preservation of traditional familyhood. Social insurance typically excludes non-working wives, and family benefits encourage motherhood.” “…the state will only interfere when the family’s capacity to service its members is exhausted”. For example, the countries of this model are France, Italy, Austria and Germany. The last type, “social-democratic welfare states”, provides a high level of service and benefit. “all strata are incorporated under one universal insurance system, yet benefits are graduated according to accustomed earnings. This model crowds out the market [meaning the private sector providing such things as pension plans]…” “The ideal is not to maximise dependence on the family, but capacities for individual independence.” The state opts to “take direct responsibility of caring for children, the aged and the helpless.” It is promised to “allow women to choose work rather than the household ” “The Scandinavian social democrats were…capable of building a welfare state with features of sufficient luxury to satisfy the wants of a more discriminating public [by which I think he means those who were better off].” The representatives are the Scandinavian countries. (責任編輯:anne)
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