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教師糾正反饋的交際性

時間:2016-05-06 00:34來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:留學生作業 點擊:
課堂教學是關于聽力教學的,而其余的是閱讀和口語課。同樣,這四個類是基于本地的老師和國際學生,主要來自中國。
Introduction 介紹
 
在交際語言教學重點增加(CLT),交際法教學面臨的挑戰引起了激烈的爭論。其中一個挑戰是如何在課堂上操作現實生活中的情況。這一挑戰的鏡子是如何使教師話語尤其是糾正性反饋在交際課堂真實(Cullen,1998)。然而,這個棘手的問題是不可能得到解決。剩下的問題是找到一個合適的方法來處理它。本文的目的是探討教師糾正性反饋的交際性。它開始與文獻回顧的定義,類型,溝通的價值和挑戰的糾正反饋。在實例引出觀察詳細的分析是在下面的章節中介紹。With the increased focus on communicative language teaching (CLT), the pedagogical challenges of communicative methodologies have aroused a heated debate. One of these challenges is that how to operate real-life situations in classrooms. A mirror of this challenge is how to make teacher talk especially corrective feedback authentic in communicative classrooms (Cullen, 1998). However, this thorny problem is not impossible to be resolved. The remaining issue is to find an appropriate way to cope with it. The aim of the paper is to explore the communicativeness in teacher corrective feedback. It begins with a review of literature arguing the definition, types, communicative values and challenges of corrective feedback. Detailed analysis on the examples eliciting from observations are presented in the following section.  
 
Literature review 文獻
 
反饋是語言教學中不可或缺的部分。作為franselow說(1987:267),“教是為了提供反饋信息。反饋正反饋和負反饋的類型。負反饋是反饋的一個重要組成部分,當有問題發生時。許多研究者(哈默,2007;Nunnan 1991)發現大多數學生希望得到糾正時產生的錯誤。眾所周知,教師話語在課堂交際性的判斷標準之一(Cullen,1998)。作為一種教師話語,在糾正性反饋是交際性值得被評價為好。Giving feedback is an integral part in language teaching. As Franselow says (1987: 267), ‘to teach is to provide feedback’. There are two types of feedback-positive feedback and negative feedback. Negative feedback is an essential part of feedback, when something goes wrong. Many researchers (Harmer, 2007; Nunnan 1991) found that most students expect to be corrected when they produce mistakes. It is universally acknowledged that teacher talk is one of criterions to judge communicativeness in classroom (Cullen, 1998). As a kind of teacher talk, the communicativeness in corrective feedback is of worth being evaluated as well.  
When right answers are given, teachers have different responses as well. Although most researchers concentrate on corrective feedback, it is also of worth considering positive feedback in language teaching. Teachers often react to students’ right answers with ‘Very good’, ‘ Exactly’, ‘Absolutely’ and so on. These praising positive feedbacks can help students reinforce the given right language points and thus give learners a sense of achievement and make them confident in the following study, which is the vital function of positive feedback (Harmer, 2007).  Negative feedback is a common feedback on students’ performance in language classroom. Harmer (2007) highlights that there are two stages in teacher correction. Teachers should first indicate an error and then help students deal with it. However, he solely emphasizes on teachers’ function in this process without predicting influence on learners. This was developed by Gainer (1989), who defines teacher correction as identifying students’ errors and strengthening linguistic rules in their minds. It can help students produce more accurately. In fact, his research did not mention the situation that teacher corrective feedback may be more or less powerless as repeated errors arise. Then, Allwright and Bailey (1991) notice such limitation and try to avoid using ‘correction’ as a reaction towards learners’ errors, as it means a permanent cure. Instead, he believes that teacher treatment of error facilitates learners’ target language form and function acquisition. After that, Cullen (1998) highlights the communicativeness in teacher response to mistakes. In his paper, teacher correction is seen as a part of teacher talk, which is related closely classroom contexts. Moreover, Samar and  
Shyestefar (2009) clarify that negative feedback helps learners ‘notice the gap between their non-target forms and the target forms’. From their point of view, teacher corrective feedback can also be treated as a way to communicate with learners and ‘bridge the communication breakdown’. Thus, teachers respond not only form but also content errors and this corrective feedback has multiple functions including helping learners’ target language acquisition as well as keeping the flow of communication in class.  As one of the goals of negative feedback is to ‘help learners get closer and closer to target language norm’ (Allwright and Bailey, 1991), teachers should choose the most appropriate correction aspect, moment and methodology in teaching language. When reacting to learners’ erroneous performance, a sequence of factors has to be taken into consideration such as ‘the stage of the lesson, the activity, the type of mistake made and the particular student who is making that mistake’ (Harmer, 2007). For instance, when learners are taking part in an accuracy-oriented activity, teacher can verbally interrupt them once errors arise, which known as ‘teacher intervention’. Also, it is apparent that teacher correction mainly concentrates on linguistic rules such as incorrect verb intense, pronunciation or spelling (Harmer, 2007). By contrast, interruption is not suitable for communicative activities, as teacher intervention will deteriorate one of their characteristics -focusing on fluency. In such circumstances, Lynch suggests that teacher should give them correction as late as possible. In other words, teacher can correct mistakes after either learner’s utterance or the activity. Besides, teachers can be less strict in communicative activities, which means implicit corrections such as reformulation are applied here without interrupting the flow of convention (Hammer, 2007).   (責任編輯:anne)
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