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加拿大本科畢業論文參考:混合產品如何成功地結合產品和

時間:2016-06-30 11:48來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:留學論文網 點擊:
本文主要是從的4Ps,4C標準,4RS營銷理論的角度來看,從三個階段來審查產品戰略的理論和實踐的發展。
Hybrid Offerings—How to combine products and services successfully?

產品和產品戰略的定義
 
產品指的是能夠提供給市場供人們使用和消費的東西,以滿足人們的某些要求(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009)。產品一般可分為三個層次,即核心價值、有形價值、附加價值(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009)。核心價值是指直接效益和效用,整體產品提供買家(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009);有形價值是指在一個市場商品形狀的實體,包括產品的品質、特征、造型、商標和包裝(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009;赫爾佐格,meuris,本德和克,2014);附加值是指一系列的附加利益和服務,全面的產品提供給客戶,包括送貨、安裝、維修、保證等(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009;schenkl,Sauer和MöRTL,2014)。產品戰略是一系列的措施和手段,企業通過在產品的生產和銷售,在激烈的市場競爭中占據優勢,包括產品的生產經營策略、產品定位、產品組合策略、產品差異化戰略、品牌戰略等(科特勒和阿姆斯壯,2009;氏等人。,2013)。
 
發展產品策略
 
1960年,麥卡錫提出的4P營銷理論。在產品策略方面,他認為企業應該專注于產品成本控制,質量和功能,使產品的生產經營戰略是企業的產品戰略的主要內容。在此期間,產品戰略專注于滿足消費者對產品的核心價值(麥卡錫,1960年)的需求。

 
Foundation of hybrid offerings 混合型產品的基礎

Product strategy
 
Table 1: Evolution of product strategy
Definitions of product and product strategy
Products refer to anything which is able to be offered to a market for people to use and consume, so as to meet people’s certain requirements (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009). Products can generally be divided into three levels, namely, core value, tangible value, added value (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009). Core value refers to the direct benefit and utility that an overall product provides buyers (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009); tangible value refers to the entity in the shape of material goods in a market, including product quality, feature, styling, trademark and packaging (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Meuris, Herzog, Bende and Sadek, 2014); additional value refers to a range of additional benefits and services that an overall product offers to customers, including delivery, installation, maintenance, guarantees, and so on (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Schenkl, Sauer and Mörtl, 2014). Product strategy is a series of measures and instruments that an enterprise uses in the production and sale of products in order to gain an advantage in fierce market competition, including product production management strategy, product positioning, product portfolio strategy, product differentiation strategy, brand strategy and so on (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Beuren et al., 2013).
2.1.2 Evolution of product strategy
This essay was mainly from the perspectives of the marketing theory of 4Ps, 4Cs, 4Rs, from three phases to review the evolution on the theory and practice of product strategy.
In 1960, McCarthy proposed the marketing theory of 4P. In terms of product strategy, he believed that companies should focus on product cost control, quality and function, so product production management strategy is the main content of an enterprise’s product strategy. During this period, product strategy focused on meeting consumer demand for core value of products (McCarthy, 1960).
Emergence and use of the marketing theory of 4Ps was based on the shortage economy and large industrial economy, it emphasized development of marketing strategies from a business point of view, and how companies met market demand faster at lower cost, but 4Ps neglected consumer demand, which caused slow response of enterprises to changes in a market (Lauterborn, 1990). Marketing theory of 4Cs was brought forward by Lauterborn in 1990 (Lauterborn, 1990). He considered that corporate marketing should first study desires and needs of consumers, and then according to market demand to develop product strategy, rather than simply consider what kind of products they can produce; in addition to paying attention to function and quality of products, companies should begin to focus on product appearance, packaging, brand to better attract consumers, so as to meet consumer demand for personalities. During this period, companies began to think highly of product positioning strategy, product differentiation strategy, brand strategy. Product strategy in this period began to focus on meeting consumer demand for core value and tangible value of products (Lauterborn, 1990). (責任編輯:anne)
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