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Obasan-二戰時期日本的加拿大人的生存研究-代寫加拿大政治歷史論文

時間:2011-12-05 14:30來源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:留學生論文代寫網 點擊:
世界歷史上,許多人道災難而聲名狼籍。不幸的是,不是所有的人都是眾所周知的,通常人們不愿意討論它們,如果他們沒有遭受任何。主要人類社會和文化的悲劇發生在戰爭的結果。

Obasan
Contents介紹

<标题> 世界歷史上,許多人道災難而聲名狼籍。不幸的是,不是所有的人都是眾所周知的,通常人們不愿意討論它們,如果他們沒有遭受任何。主要人類社會和文化的悲劇發生在戰爭的結果。

<标题> 事實上,問題是,很多人記得戰爭中的贏家,他們認為一點關于那些已經失敗了,但是什么是真正的分析很少是人們的命運來源于敵人的國家,生活在一個國家對他們的祖先的國家宣稱戰爭。正是這些人的命運,那快樂Kogawa痕跡在書本" Obasan”,把它更準確揭示了加拿大人的故事,生活在日本在加拿大第二次世界大戰。

代寫加拿大政治歷史論文在這本書里快樂Kogawa超越命運的簡單描述整個國民群日本加拿大人但可能更重要的問題,而造成作者與困境,要求讀者的回答自己。一個中央點整本書是文化生產的能力,從而導致五四已經創造了一些刻板印象,由于一些特殊的情況下,改變態度的代表不同的國家到每一個人。總的來說,作者顯然使讀者思考普遍人性價值完全相同的所有人,無論他們的起源和在同樣的時間內所有的人都是平等的,不能被壓抑,因為它發生在日本的加拿大人在第二次世界大戰和后幾年內結束,似乎只有一樣東西能有效提供這樣的民族和諧與社會和諧是真正民主的社會,剝奪了偏見與定型。

歷史背景

<标题> 擺在了工作Kogawa及其要點快樂,尤其是那些關于文化的作用,有必要住在一些歷史底蘊的時代和事件中所描繪的書。

<标题> 首先,應該說,主題和情節的書是非常接近的作者,誰,是日本的加拿大人,知道有什么地迎得很好。自然就會產生一個可疑的開始生效,一方面它加入一些主觀這本書和感知以及解釋發生的事件的討論在時代,另一方面可能沒有誰能揭示其他作者的主體問題,以充分發揮其可怕的方面,在所以的可能性中,不會如此明顯的作者不同的來源。以這樣一種方式可以有一個讀者一個絕佳的機會,來看看情況,在里面。

<标题> 所以,發生了什么事比日本在二戰期間,加拿大嗎?事實上,這個問題的答案并不非常愉快的到這里,特別是現在,當加拿大被認為屬于數量的民主國家。正如眾所周知,日本進入二戰中,美國珍珠港襲擊之后,美國已經宣布日本的戰爭。加拿大是世界上的一個部分,盎格魯-撒克遜有著密切的政治、經濟、文化與美國的關系和英國不能做任何事,除了加入這場戰爭了。在這一點上,日本的加拿大人的悲劇的開始。他們被看作是敵人的村莊,他們中的許多人出生,在現實生活中他們并不比任何其他公民加拿大加拿大。

然而,這樣的態度形成的加拿大人基本上是日本戰爭宣傳官員支持為了證明加拿大進入戰爭。結果公眾輿論有了一種極端的性格。毫不奇怪,這一政策導致了拘留日本加拿大和實踐脫離其馀的加拿大的社會。很明顯的位置是不合理的惡化,日本加拿大人是絕對無法讓民主的社會。”同時他們成為一種被趕散的人不僅對他們所導致的文化沖突隔離以來日本文化豐富加拿大社會,并被日本加拿大人就不能生存,否則他們的文化和傳統。忘記保持不變的情況下直到1949年的拘留政策終于停了下來,和剝奪日本曾獲加拿大人最后的機會來開發他們的文化,融入加拿大社會自由。

<标题> “Obasan”作為一種文化和解

談到“Obasan”是必要的,它要強調的是,這本書是一個自傳注意但是它的主要目標不是故事的痛苦,揭示了日本的加拿大人在二戰期間,但它,而針對文化與道德之間的和解和其他日本加拿大加拿大社會。在這方面的故事小說是耐人尋味的必要性,強調要尊重每一個社區文化的最佳國家。

至于故事描寫在小說中,故事是說由拿俄米,一個教師,回頭看她的過去,試圖了解發生了什么事她和她的同胞在第二次世界大戰,尤其是她關心的命運就是她失去了她的母親。這樣一個丟失的原因很悲慘,但同時它不依賴于主要特征的故事,這是戰爭分隔的家庭離開母親在日本和其他的家人在加拿大。母親非常象征性地去她的祖先的土地,潛在的文化和國家統一的起源和與她的過去。同時她也是一個流亡日本文化的象征,它變成了,已經沒有發展空間在加拿大和日本加拿大社會已經沒有機會正常的文化和社會整合戰后加拿大社會了。

<标题> 同時這本書的中心仍然是另一個字符Obasan,阿姨拿俄米誰是一種的守護者在加拿大和日本舊傳統于忽視日本加拿大面臨的問題,或者象拿俄米說,她對不公平與艱辛轉向石頭。以這樣一種方式作者很可能想表明日本文化和發展仍然是不可一世的獨立無論隔離行動日本加拿大和讓他們生活在一種難以忍受他們只好住在貧民窟和幾年后,明確戰爭。另一個事實的作用作為一個守護者Obasan門將的日本文化與傳統的事實是,她不能或不愿解釋發生了什么,但她拿俄米擁有盒書信和日記的另一個埃米莉姑媽,她記錄發生的時期。在閱讀這些信件和日記拿俄米駭人聽聞的細節變得熟悉的過去發生了什么,實現第二次世界大戰期間她寫給家人和日本的加拿大人在逃。

進一步,讀小說,很明顯不公平的和不容忍到什么程度的態度是日本的加拿大人在第二次世界大戰時期。這本書揭示日本多少加拿大人致力于土地他們住或曾經住過,他們愿意幫助無論他們的現狀。在這方面事件當拿俄米告訴由姑母撫養大的。拿俄米說:“她告訴我,當弗雷澤山谷淹沒和土地,曾經屬于日本加拿大人被水淹,有一個民族主義的公眾情感渲泄幫助農民,該地區居民”(Kogawa)。此外,她繼續“我們寄錢,”她說,“錢來幫助人們誰拿了我們的農場!我想我們都希望它會給我們的誠信”(Kogawa)。顯然這樣希望證明日本加拿大人他們是加拿大社會中不可或缺的一部分,他們可以和睦起源和他們的鄰居無論在過去的罪行。不幸的是他們所得到的回應是恰恰相反,他們的期望:“我們最終被藐視兩倍的狗,當作了”(Kogawa)。

此外,在極端的情況下剝奪日本加拿大移民加拿大政府強迫他們并離開這個國家,在那里他們中的許多人出生,他們認為是他們的祖國。這一政策有一個司法支持了自從日本加拿大簽署文件,同意移居日本,而“那些拒絕簽下被描述為不合作,并否認特權”(Kogawa)。

<标题> 顯然,加拿大政府政策的第二次世界大戰期間是錯誤的,并完全接受一個民主的國家。不幸的是,政治和經濟時期鎮壓也是一個時期的眾多文化方面的問題,因為這是很不容易的發展文化,在這種情況下。但是日本的加拿大人高度贊賞他們的文化,他們很關心這個以及關于他們的傳統工藝品和風俗。在這方面,值得一提的是注重“集父親和叔叔年輕人站滿襟并列之一…叔叔的手擱在船體的一個玲瓏剔透的詳細的工藝。這不是一個漁船或一個普通的游艇,但是在一個雅致的船設計,由父親,多年來,許多冬天的夜晚。一件藝術品。“多美麗!“RCMP軍官說,在1941年,當他看到那”(Kogawa)。后者的事實是尤其重要,因為它揭示,加拿大人真正欣賞藝術作品和真正的美麗,無論它的創造者。


1. Introduction
2. The historical background
3. “Obasan” as a means of cultural reconciliation
4. Conclusion
5. Bibliography

Introduction
The world history is notorious for numerous humanitarian catastrophes. Unfortunately not all of them are widely known and as a rule people prefer not to discuss them if they did not suffer from any of it. Basically human social and cultural tragedies occur in the result of a war.
In fact the problem is that many people remembers the winners in the war and they think a little about those who have lost but what is really seldom is the analysis of the fate of the people originating from the enemy country and living in a country against which the country of their ancestors declared the war. It is exactly the fate of such people that Joy Kogawa traces in the book “Obasan”, to put it more precisely the author reveals the story of Japanese Canadians and their life in Canada during the World War II.
In this book Joy Kogawa goes beyond a simple description of fate of the whole national group of Japanese Canadians but what is probably more important the author rather poses questions and dilemmas the readers are supposed to answer themselves. One of the central points of the whole book is the power of cultural production, which can result in re-evaluation of some stereotypes that have been created because of some extraordinary circumstances and change the attitude of representatives of different nations to each other. In general, the author obviously make the readers think about universal human values which are absolutely identical for all people, regardless their origin and in the same time all people are equal and cannot be repressed as it occurred to Japanese Canadians in the World War II and a few years after its end and it seems that the only thing that can effectively provide such social and national harmony is really democratic society, deprived prejudices and stereotypes.
The historical background
Before discussing the work of Joy Kogawa and its main points, particularly those concerning the role of culture, it is necessary to dwell upon some historical details of the epoch and events depicted in the book.
First of all, it should be said that the theme and the plot of the book is very close to the author, who, being Japanese Canadian, knows quite well what were the sufferance of his people. Naturally it produces a dubious effect since, on the one hand, it adds some subjectivity to the book and perception as well as interpretation of the events that occurred during the epoch discussed, on the other hand there is probably no other author who could reveal the entity of the problem and show its terrible aspects, which, in all probability, would not be so obvious for the authors of a different origin. In such a way a reader can have a wonderful opportunity to look at the situation from within.
So, what happened than to Japanese Canadian during the World War II? In fact the answer is not very pleasant to here, especially nowadays, when Canada is considered to belong to the number of democratic counties. As it is well-known, Japan entered the World War II and attacked the US Pearl Harbour and after that the US had to declare the war on Japan. Canada, being a part of the Anglo-Saxon world and having close political, economic and cultural relations with the US and the UK could not do anything but join the war too. At this point the tragedy of Japanese Canadians starts. They were perceived as enemies in the country where many of them were born and in actuality they were not less Canadian than any other citizens of Canada.
However, such attitude to Japanese Canadians was basically formed by war propaganda, which officials supported in order to justify Canadian entering the war. As a result public opinion had a kind of extremist character. Not surprisingly that such a policy led to the internment of Japanese Canadians and their practical isolation from the rest of the Canadian society. Obviously the position of Japanese Canadians was unreasonably deteriorated and was absolutely unacceptable for democratic society. In the same time they became a kind of outcasts that led not only to their isolation but to the cultural conflict since rich Japanese culture was rejected by Canadian society while Japanese Canadians could not live otherwise forgetting their culture and traditions. The situation remained unchanged until 1949 when the policy of internment and deprivation had finally stopped and Japanese Canadians eventually had got an opportunity to develop their culture freely and integrate into Canadian society.
“Obasan” as a means of cultural reconciliation
Speaking about “Obasan” it is necessary to emphasize that the book is an autobiographic note but its main goal is not to reveal the story of sufferings of Japanese Canadians during the World War II but it rather aims at the cultural and moral reconciliation of Japanese Canadians and the rest of Canadian society. At this respect a story told in the novel is thought provoking and emphasizing the necessity to respect the culture of every community populating the country.
As for the story depicted in the novel, the story is told by Naomi, a schoolteacher, who is looking back at her past and attempts to understand what happened to her and her compatriots in the World War II and especially she is concerned about the fate of her mother whom she lost. The reason of such a lost is quite tragic but in the same time it does not depend on the main characters of the story, it is the war that separated the family leaving the mother in Japan and the rest of the family in Canada. Quite symbolically that the mother goes to the land of her ancestors, underlying the cultural unity with the country of her origin and with her past. In the same time she also is a symbol of an exiled Japanese culture, which, as it turns to be, has no room for development in Canada and the Japanese Canadian community has no opportunities for normal cultural and social integration in Canadian society after the war has broken out.
In the same time in the centre of the book remains another character Obasan, the aunt of Naomi who is a kind of a guardian of old Japanese traditions in Canada and who tends to ignore all the problems Japanese Canadian faces, or, as Naomi says, she responds to the injustice and hardships by turning to stone. In such a way the author probably intended to show that Japanese culture remains untouchable and develops independently regardless the efforts to isolate Japanese Canadians and make their life unbearable in a kind of ghettos they had to live during and a few years after the war. Another fact that underlines the role of Obasan as a guardian or keeper of Japanese culture and traditions is the fact that she cannot or does not want to explain Naomi what happened but she possesses the box of letters and diaries of another aunt Emily, in which she recorded the events of that epoch. On reading these letters and diaries Naomi gets acquainted with appalling details of the past and realizes what has happened during the World War II to her family and to Japanese Canadians at large.
Further, on reading the novel, it becomes obvious to what extent unjust and intolerant was attitude to Japanese Canadians in the period of the World War II. The book reveals how much Japanese Canadians were devoted to the land they live or used to live and they are ready to help regardless their current situation. At this respect the episode when Naomi told by her aunt. Naomi says that “she told me that when the Fraser Valley flooded and the land that had once belonged to Japanese Canadians was under water, there was a public outpouring of help to the farmers and residents of the area” (Kogawa). Moreover, she continues ‘We sent money,’ she said, ‘money to help the people who had taken our farms! I imagine we were hoping that it would show our good faith” (Kogawa). Obviously in such a way Japanese Canadians wanted to demonstrate that they are an essential part of Canadian society and they could live in peace with their neighbours regardless their origin and the offences made in the past. Unfortunately what they have got in response was quite the contrary to their expectations: “we end up being despised twice as much and treated like cringing dogs” (Kogawa).
Moreover, in a situation of extreme deprivation of Japanese Canadians Canadian government forced them to emigrate and leave the country, where many of them were born and which they considered to be their motherland. Such a policy had a juridical support since Japanese Canadians had to sign papers agreeing to emigrate to Japan, while “those who refused to sign were described as uncooperative and denied privileges” (Kogawa).
Obviously the policy of Canadian government during the World War II were wrong and absolutely unacceptable for a democratic country. Unfortunately the period of political and socio-economic repression was also a period of numerous cultural problems since it was not easy to develop the culture in such circumstances. Nonetheless Japanese Canadians highly appreciated their culture and were very concerned about it as well as about their traditional crafts and customs. At this respect, it is noteworthy to pay attention to the episode when “Uncle and Father as young men standing full front beside each other… One of Uncle’s hands rested on the hull of an exquisitely detailed craft. It wasn’t a fishing vessel or an ordinary yacht, but a sleek boat designed by Father, made over many years and many winter evenings. A work of art. ‘What a beauty!’ the RCMP officer said in 1941, when he saw it” (Kogawa). The latter fact is particularly important because it reveals the fact that Canadians can really appreciate works of art and real beauty, regardless its creators.
Unfortunately, such a link between communities has been lost because of the war, which separated Canadians people. In such a situation, Japanese Canadians turns to be the most suffering community sine they feels as aliens in the country which was their home. Sadly to admit but many Japanese Canadians had the same fate as her Uncle when he “was taken away, wearing shirt, jacket and dungarees. He had no provisions nor did he have any idea where the gunboats were herding him and the other Japanese fishermen in the impounded fishing fleet” (Kogawa). Not surprisingly that the most bright and positive recall of Naomi is about the house of her childhood “more splendid than any house I have lived in since” ().
Finally, the author can suggest nothing else but remembering the old traditions, culture and the past, exactly like aunt Emily who appeals to Naomi saying “you have to remember! You are your history” (Kogawa). Moreover, what is probably more important is that she appeals not only to Naomi and her compatriots but it rather sounds as the general appeal to all people of Canada, or even the entire world: “Don’t deny the past. Remember everything. If you’re bitter, be bitter” (Kogawa).

Conclusion
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the author appeals to remembering that is the only way to prevention the repetition of mistakes of the past and he attempts to reconcile both cultures Japanese and Canadians for through remembering their past and knowing it in details they would more probably forgive each other and become equal and mutually enriching each other. It is also obvious that such reconciliation is possible due to the art, which is universal and representatives of different communities can understand it. Anyway, on reading “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa, a reader realizes that such tragedies should not be repeated and in really democratic countries all people should be really equal in both rights and responsibilities.

Bibliography:
1. Adachi, Ken. The Enemy That Never Was: A History Of The Japanese Canadians. Toronto: OUP, 1998.
2. Beeler, Karin. Biography of Joy Kowaga. Toronto: Routeledge, 1999.
3. Knutson, Susan. Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Ed. W.H. New. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
4. Kogawa, Joy. Obasan. Boston : David R. Gordine, 1982.
5. Roy, Miki. Justice In Our Time: The Japanese Canadian Redress Settlement. Toronto: OUP, 1999.
6. Stevens, Peter. The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. Ed. Eugene Benson and William Toye. Toronto: OUP, 1997.

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