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法語英式化論文加拿大法語英式化論文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French

時間:2012-04-18 11:27來源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:法語英式化論文 點擊:
法語英式化論文加拿大法語英式化論文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French British papers-Canada French of British research-Canada French and France belong to the same kind of French although language, but for both in Can
法語英式化論文,加拿大法語英式化論文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French British papers Canada French of British research 【 pick to 】 Canada French and France belong to the same kind of French although language, but for both in Canada and France respectively of the two different environment development for more than two centuries, so there are some differences between the two. Canada French geographical environment and history by the influence of the environment, develop the characteristics of different in French, which is the most outstanding is its British cavitation phenomenon. At present, the domestic to Canada French English cavitation phenomenon have had many research, but from the language variants Angle analysis of this phenomenon is not obvious see more, based on the social linguistics theory, research Canada French written and spoken English cavitation phenomenon and development trend, hope to open up gives the field of a new perspective, so, also for this research field for further development of the pioneering a new train of thought. 【 key words 】 French Canadian British tendency Canada is a typical immigration country, is also a bilingual country, the 1969 first "the official language law" officially confirmed the official language is English and French. Canada is both members of the commonwealth, and French country and the area the members of the organization. As early as in 17, 18 th century, French is first came to Quebec in this area. French natural also become the region of speech communication leading role, but the fate of the national language and national political fate is closely linked. 19 century, as the British colonists invasion force and the American economic boom brought cultural osmosis, ruler of the language gradually immersed to Canada in French. Look from environmental position, Quebec area had been surrounded by English area, the british-born people in North America in the world of life for nearly 400 years later, the English has become one of the biggest characteristic of French Canadian. Although people constantly take some language Quebec boycott policies, such as legal restrictions, French also only in classroom teaching, family communication, religious affairs activity remains absolutely status and in public administration, business financial, industrial technology are associated with the use of English. Therefore, English foreign words are filled with Canada French language, from daily spoken to the vocabulary and grammar sentence written language, English has greatly changed the Canada French. A Canadian French written English change 1. According to the English writing used to write French words Mutual borrowing, in English and French language is always in good a relatively common writing phenomenon. Although loanwords keep original intention, but shall be their spelling rules, so in the written are different. And Canada, due to the influence of French English larger, often confuse this, for example: Room and date. Such as: on October 19, 2010 is often in oct. 24. 2010, need not France in the form of French 24. The oct. 2010. 5 PM and 5:00 p.m. written often don't 17 h. The locals have also been English writing, the influence of the individual numerals French French a conjunction connection, such as trente-et-UN, cinqant-et-UN. While the Canadian French but according to the English expressions trente way-UN (thirty one), cinqant-UN (fifty one). And some words are written in English pronunciation of Canada French words, such as canne (can; canned), mappe (map; map), breuvage (brewage; cold drink), etc. 2. According to the English grammar habits organization French sentence structures The English expression is a deviation from the regular French grammar patterns of expression, from grammar point, this also can call is normal use grammatical mistakes. If you want to appear in spoken English is inevitable, written in such a way of expression of time to consider in should be avoid actually. But in Canada in French, written in English grammar can be seen everywhere, the phenomenon, this British written expression has become one of the main characteristics of French Canadian. Many domestic this language researchers to Canada in the French word, the verb, prepositions, etc all vocabulary a deeper study on, the author here will no longer hereby, mainly from the syntax structure to Canada on the features of the French English some tentative analysis. First, similar grammatical structure, use the English expression, this is Canada French in grammar shows an important characteristic. The present participle is in French and English there is a grammatical phenomenon, but in the two languages in the use of the grammar rules and express meaning quite have the difference. Canada's magazine, the common use of the time now, but most of the English grammar structure with close off the requirements of the French grammar. Such as, le journaliste l 'a vue chantant avec expression. (reporters saw her singing extremely rich expression.) This is a typical example of British French, English has a lot of the verb structure is: verbs + sb + doing STH. In French correctly in the way of expression should be: le journaliste l 'a vue chanter avec expression. Second, the passive voice and a in French and English in the presence of the grammatical phenomenon. But in French, active tense ownership is the position. Only in order to give prominence to the differences in thought, performance rich technique, or to emphasize the importance of the subject, the French people use the passive. So in French, the passive and active voice of expression meaning is not the same. But Canada, due to the influence of French English, in many cases will abuse passive. For example, a Canadian news have such a word: les routes sont dites dangereuses dans tout l 'etat. This is a word of English grammar habits according to express the passive example, this sentence structure has deviated from the French grammar rules. The French French expression should be: on rapporte que toutes les routes DE l 'etat sont dites dangereuses. Two Canadian French of English In daily in the spoken language, English French can be found everywhere. Many people are neither Quebec speak French will also speak English, they often put the English vocabulary, sentence patterns with French vocabulary sentence patterns cross use. As time goes on, the English of the French expression is widely accepted and used, as Canada French one of the features of spoken English. 1. According to the English pronunciation used to read French words Add cent the plural form of s pronunciation: elle a donne dix cents (s pronunciation) a cette vendeuse. To er at the end of the English foreign words sometimes hair into e, sometimes hair eur, sometimes it is two kinds of circumstances combination: best-seller (bestseller) into the er hair eur; Pullover (pullovers) as the er hair into e also can send into eur. French pronunciation rules requirement for foreign words, generally USES the French pronunciation way, for example: not to be camping hair into came-ping, also cannot send into tcheque cheque. Canada French region familiar with English pronunciation, therefore, in our daily communication easy to all these issues. Canada in French the English word the pronunciation of words at the end of the use and in accordance with the English pronunciation, such as: photostat, srandard, thermostat, at the end of the word of the letters are to pronunciation. 2. According to the English expression use of French words Because the people most French Canadian English, so under the influence, the people in the area of English language thinking mode of the trend is very clear. Especially in the oral communication, due to the accuracy of the oral English language requirements is low, so, people in the moment of blurt out more or less will be often contact with another kind of language expression way have influence. Such as: merci (thanks.) bienvenu. The answer you're welcome, English often is welcome, French is directly used to and its meaning of the word use relative, and sometimes also can hear directly in one of the biggest welcome. Be like again, when making a phone call ask the other party is who, France is the expression of the French qui est a l 'appareil? The expression of the French and Canada is qui parle? This is applying the English expressions who is speaking? Answer, if want to say "please don't hang up," the French French expression is ne quittez pas, s' il vous plait. Canada French expression occasionally use gardez la ligne. This is the expression of the English to hold on. 3. Direct use of English vocabulary Some English words when use is copy them directly, such as call lancer UN call, often used the phrase. Agreed to answer the is used in nearly all ok! Ok! Cen 'est pas lefun; No interest. Causer du trouble; Cause trouble. Some English words according to the order of French is it, if, if the shop is on sale, in France generally will say en sold, and Canada, says French prix special, this is the special prix copy by English. Three of the French British trend in Canada From the social linguistics Angle, the nation is a national language influence the important social differentiation factors. At present, many countries are composed of many ethnic groups, such, political unrest and ethnic conflicts often can cause the language of the conflict. In Quebec, Canada because of the French occupy long-term advantage, face siege of English, the region has had many strive for independence act. Language is a national important characteristics, it reflects the nation's collective psychological, culture state, is carrying a nation's history. 1. The language variants perspective of French Canadian English tendency Bilingual phenomenon is actually in a society of the existing in two or more national language variants. The formation of the language variants often and social politics, culture, history and inseparable. According to FeiGeSong (ferguson) bilingual theory, he will coexist in the same society two kinds of language form, is divided into the upper language (variete haute) and the lower language (variete basse). Early Canada French region, French is absolutely the upper language, and English is the language, but bilingual language is continuous in the process of evolution. To Canada French district as an example, as the French upper language is to appear in the church, literature, speech and university, and the English language as the lower, who exists only in popular conversation and popular literature, but with politics, history, culture, and many other social factors, English has appeared in the French public education in Canada, and become the official languages of Canada. In theory, bilingual phenomenon is normal linguistic phenomenon, but we cannot ignore the expression of language conflict (le conflit linguistiaue). Use conflict (conflit) and bilingual (diglossie) coexist these two words not refers to two languages (or two kinds of language variations) function and balanced and stable distribution, but means a kind of language to another language rule (mais comme la domination d "une langue sur une autre). Regional economic and culture, due to the influence of factors, Canada is to the French English ruling momentum, though, in the proportion of language use in English is not account for absolute advantage, but it has set up a file in the most applications at the same time and the French appeared. 2. From the Canadian government language policy analysis of French Canadian trend in English Canada in 1969 for a formal announcement of the bilingual and double culture national and then practicing multicultural policies. On the surface, these measures conducive to two kinds of language in the same country's stable development, but in fact is hidden behind policy in English and French conflict. Language and national inseparable, who is not willing to admit that his own language at a disadvantage. But in recent years several times of survey data show, use the sharp reduction in French, and use English man is increasing quickly. In the English language and English culture of Canada by French, natural meeting to protect its own value and careful to English. In Quebec, Canada is French landslide area, the area has held many times an independence movement. But even if is such, because of the two bilingual policy language does not exist any tendency of support, so, with its economic and cultural English advantage, have gradually penetration in the area in all its aspects. Two power balance of language is impossible in frequent contact the coexistence, the weak will be replaced. From the social linguistics point, the weak language culture will be the dominant language invasion and eventually assimilation. Canada in French English status rise will make Canada French in trouble. And the official languages of Canada policy also not to give the French provide more way out. In the background of global integration, http://livesitehelp.com/jndlw/2012/0306/935.html a country coexistence multicultural and many kinds of language is an inevitable trend. English in Canada the French rising trend doesn't mean the area of French litter. In the language of the current policy, the French Canadian and French canadians can hold mutual respect and mutual tolerance and mutual learning attitude to protect their national language and national culture. reference [1] bergeron (leandre) dictionnaire DE la langue quebecois [m]. Montreal-nord: leandre bergeron & VLB editeur, 1980:22 ~ 28 [2] FangRenJie. French social linguistics [m]. Changchun: jilin people's press, 2003:323-327   加拿大法語的英式化研究
  
  【摘要】加拿大法語和法國法語雖然屬于同一種語言,但由于兩者分別在加拿大和法國這兩種不同的環境下發展了兩個多世紀,所以兩者之間存在一定的差異。加拿大法語受地理環境及歷史環境的影響,發展出異于法國法語的特點,其中尤為突出的就是它的英式化現象。目前,國內對加拿大法語的英語化現象已有很多研究,但從語言變體角度分析這一現象還不明顯多見,本文借助這一社會語言學理論,研究加拿大法語書面語和口語的英式化現象及其發展趨勢,希望開辟出該領域的一個新視角,所以,也為該研究領域今后的發展開拓一種新思路。
  
  【關鍵詞】法語加拿大英式化趨勢加拿大是一個典型的移民國家,也是一個雙語國家,1969年通過的首部《官方語言法》正式確定了其官方語言為英語和法語。加拿大既是英聯邦的成員,又是法語國家與地區組織的成員。早在17、18世紀,法國人就率先來到魁北克這一地區。法語自然也成為該地區言語交際的主角,但民族語言的命運與民族政治的命運息息相關。19世紀,隨著英國殖民者的武力入侵和美國經濟騰飛帶來的文化滲透,統治者的語言逐漸浸入到加拿大法語中來。從環境位置上看,魁北克地區已經完全被英語區包圍,在北美洲這個英裔人世界中生活了近400年后,英語化已成為加拿大法語的最大特點之一。盡管魁北克人不斷采取一些語言抵制政策,如法律上的限制,法語也只能在課堂教學、家庭交際、宗教事務活動中保持絕對地位,而在公共行政、商務金融、工業科技中均伴有英語的使用。因此,英語外來詞充斥了加拿大法語語言,從日常口語到書面語中的詞匯句型乃至語法,英語都極大地改變了加拿大法語。一加拿大法語書面語的英式化1.按英語的書寫習慣寫法語單詞相互借詞,在英語和法語良好總語言中是一種較為常見的書寫現象。借詞后雖然保持原意,但應有各自的拼寫規律,所以在寫法上也不盡相同。而加拿大法語由于受英語的影響較大,往往混淆這一點,例如:間和日期。如:2010年10月19日就常寫成oct.24.2010,不用法國法語的形式24.oct.2010。下午5點常寫成5:00p.m.而不用17h。數詞的書寫也受到英語的影響,法國法語中的個別數詞有連詞連接,如trente-et-un,cinqant-et-un。而加拿大法語卻按照英語的表達方式trente-un(thirtyone),cinqant-un(fiftyone)。還有一些詞是按照英語發音書寫的加拿大法語詞,比如canne(can;罐頭),mappe(map;地圖),breuvage(brewage;冷飲料)等。2.按英語的語法習慣組織法語句式結構英語化表達方式是一種偏離正規法語語法的表達模式,從語法角度講,這也可以稱為是正規語法的錯誤使用。如要在口語中出現是在所難免的,在書面語這樣有斟酌時間的表達方式中其實就應該回避的。但在加拿大法語中,書面語的語法中隨處可見英語化的現象,這種英式的書面表達法已經成為加拿大法語的主要特點之一。
  
  國內很多這方面的語言研究者對加拿大法語在古詞、動詞、介詞等詞匯方面都作了較為深入的探討,筆者在這里就不再贅述了,下面主要從句法結構上對加拿大法語的英語化特點做一些嘗試性的分析。第一,相似的語法結構,多采用英式表達,這是加拿大法語在語法上顯示出的一個重要特點。現在分詞是在法語和英語中都存在的一個語法現象,但在這兩種語言中該語法的使用規則和表達含義頗有差異。加拿大的雜志中,常見現在分時的使用,但大多與英語的語法結構相近而偏離法語語法的要求。如,lejournalistel’avuechantantavecexpression.(記者見到她極富表現力的演唱。)這是一個英式法語的典型例子,英語中有大量動詞的結構是:動詞+sb+doingsth.而在法語中正確的表達方式應該是:lejournalistel’avuechanteravecexpression.第二,被動語態又是一個在法語和英語中同時存在的語法現象。但在法語中,主動語態是占有絕對地位的。只有在為了突出思想的差異,表現豐富的手法,或者為了強調主語的重要性時,法國人才使用被動語態。所以在法語中,被動語態和主動語態所表達的含義并不相同。但是加拿大法語由于受英語的影響,在很多情況下都會濫用被動語態。比如,一則加拿大新聞中有這樣一句話:lesroutessontditesdangereusesdanstoutl’etat.這就是一句按照英語的語法習慣表達被動語態的例子,這句話基本結構上已經偏離了法語語法的規則。法國法語的表達方式應該是:onrapportequetouteslesroutesdel’etatsontditesdangereuses.二加拿大法語口語的英式化在日常口語中,英式的法語比比皆是。許多魁北克人既會講法語也會講英語,他們常常把英語的詞匯、句型換成法語的詞匯句型交叉使用。隨著時間的推移,這種英語化的法語表達被廣泛接受并使用,成為加拿大法語口語的一大特色。1.按照英語的發音習慣讀法語單詞cent復數形式時加s的發音:elleadonnédixcents(s發音)àcettevendeuse.以er結尾的英語外來詞有時發成è,有時發eur,有時則兩種情況混用:best-seller(暢銷書)中的er發成eur;pullover(套頭毛衣)中的er既可發成è也可發成eur。
  
  法語發音規則要求對外來詞,一般采用法語發音方式,例如:不能將camping發成came-ping,也不能將chèque發成tchèque。加拿大法語地區的人熟悉英語發音,因此,在日常交際中容易出現上述錯誤。加拿大法語中英語借用詞詞末的發音也依照英語發音,如:photostat,srandard,thermostat等詞末的字母都要發音。2.按英語表達方式使用法語詞句由于加拿大法語區的人們大多會英語,所以受其影響,該地區的人們語言思維方式英語化的趨勢十分明顯。尤其是在口語交際中,由于口語表達對語言的準確性要求較低,所以,人們在脫口而出的瞬間或多或少都會被常接觸的另一種語言表達方式所影響。如:merci(謝謝).bienvenu.回答不客氣時,英語慣用的是welcome,法語中則直接用來與其意義相對的詞使用,甚至有時也能聽到直接用welcome作答的。再如,打電話時問對方是誰,法國法語的表達是quiestàl’appareil?而加拿大法語的表達是quiparle?這是套用英語的表達whoisspeaking?回答時,如果想說“請別掛上”,法國法語的表達是nequittezpas,s’ilvousplait.加拿大法語表達時偶爾會用gardezlaligne.這也是套用英語的表達holdon.3.直接使用英語詞匯有的英語詞匯在使用時是直接照搬的,如打電話時常用lanceruncall之類的用語。表示同意的回答時幾乎都用ok!ok!cen’estpaslefun;沒有趣。causerdutrouble;引起麻煩。有的英語詞匯則按照法語的順序來說,如,如果是商店打折時,在法國一般會說ensold,而加拿大法語則說prixspécial,這是由英語的specialprix照搬來的。
  
  三加拿大法語的英式化趨勢從社會語言學角度來看,民族是影響一個國家語言分化的重要社會因素。目前,很多國家都是多民族構成的,這樣,政治動亂以及民族矛盾往往會引起語言上的沖突。加拿大魁北克地區由于法語占據的長期優勢,面對英語的圍困,該地區已有過多次爭取獨立的舉動。語言是一個民族的重要特征,它反映了一個民族的集體心理、文化狀態,也承載了一個民族的歷史。1.語言變體角度分析加拿大法語的英式化趨勢雙語現象實際上就是在一個社會中存在的兩種或多種的民族語言變體。語言變體的形成往往與社會政治、文化、歷史密不可分。根據費格松(ferguson)的雙語理論,他將同時存在于同一社會的兩種語言形式,分為上層語言(variétéhaute)和下層語言(variétébasse)。早期的加拿大法語地區,法語是絕對的上層語言,而英語則是下層語言,但雙語語言是處于不斷演變過程中的。以加拿大法語區為例,作為上層語言的法語是出現在教堂、文學、演講和大學里的,而作為下層語言的英語,曾僅僅存在于通俗會話和大眾文學中,但隨著政治、歷史、文化等諸多社會因素的影響,英語已經出現在加拿大法語區的公眾教育里,并且成為加拿大的官方語言。從理論上講,雙語現象是正常的語言學現象,但我們不能忽視其所表現出來的語言沖突(leconflitlinguistiaue)。使用沖突(conflit)和雙語(diglossie)并存這兩個詞不是指兩種語言(或者兩種語言的變異)的功能和平衡而穩定的分布,而是指一種語言對另一種語言的統治(maiscommeladominationd’unelanguesuruneautre)。
  
  由于受地域和經濟文化等因素的影響,加拿大法語區的英語有趨于統治地位的勢頭,盡管在語言使用的比例上英語沒有占到絕對優勢,但是它已在大部分場合里同時與法語出現了。2.從加拿大政府的語言政策上分析加拿大法語的英式化趨勢加拿大于1969年正式宣布其為雙語和雙文化國家,隨后還推行多元文化政策。從表面上看,這些措施有利于兩種語言在同一國家的平穩發展,但實際上政策背后還隱有英語和法語的沖突。語言和民族密不可分,誰也不愿承認自己的語言處于劣勢。但近些年的幾次調查數據顯示,使用法語的人在急劇減少,而使用英語的人卻快速遞增。在英語語言和英語國家文化包圍下的加拿大法語,自然會為保護其自身價值而對英語格外警惕。加拿大魁北克地區是法語占絕對優勢的一區,該區就曾多次舉行獨立運動。但即便是這樣,由于雙語政策對兩種語言不存在任何傾向性的扶持,所以,英語以其經濟文化的優勢,已逐漸滲透在該區的各個方面。兩種力量均衡的語言是無法在頻繁的接觸中共存的,弱者必將被取代。從社會語言學角度講,處于弱勢的語言文化必將被處于主導地位的語言入侵并最終同化。加拿大法語地區的英語地位上升,必將使加拿大法語面臨困境。而加拿大的官方語言政策也并沒有給法語提供更多的出路。在全球一體化的大背景下,一個國家共存多元文化和多種語言是一個必然的趨勢。英語在加拿大法語區的上升趨勢并不代表該地區法語的凋落。在現行的語言政策下,英裔加拿大人和法裔加拿大人可以抱著相互尊重、相互包容、相互學習的心態保護各自的民族語言及民族文化。
  
  參考文獻[1]bergeron(léandre)dictionnairedelalanguequébécois[m].montréal-nord:léandrebergeron&vlbediteur,1980:22~28[2]方仁杰.法語社會語言學[m].長春:吉林人民出版社,2003:323~327

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