論文哥代寫源于英倫 服務世界 專業代寫服務12年 <-- -->
當前位置: 首頁 > 留學生作業 >

難民政策在歐盟從馬斯特里赫特條約第三支柱阿姆斯特丹條約的轉型

時間:2016-03-10 09:12來源:livesitehelp.com 作者:anne 點擊:
從馬斯特里赫特條約到阿姆斯特丹條約,它反映了從上世紀90年代歐盟難民政策從單純的國際合作轉變為一定程度上的超國家決策。
Introduction介紹
 
難民政策不僅是國際社會普遍關注的問題,也是歐盟及其成員國在一體化進程中無法回避的問題。上世紀80年代,西歐各國的自由主義政策一個接一個地收緊,因此歐洲防御開始出現。在上世紀90年代蘇聯解體、東和局部戰爭最終形成了歐洲難民問題。歐盟加強了成員國之間的難民政策合作。從馬斯特里赫特條約阿姆斯特丹條約,歐盟形成共同的限制性難民政策的趨勢,構建歐盟數字指紋識別系統,歐洲難民基金和最低標準。歐盟開始從單純的政府間合作轉變為超國家的難民政策。本文介紹了歐盟共同的難民政策的歷史發展軌跡從他馬斯特里赫特條約到阿姆斯特丹條約。指出在一定程度上限制了多層次的治理和決策機制。從限制的難民政策到松散的困境是一個兩難的困境。Refugee policy not only is an issue of common concern to the international society, but also is an area that the EU and its member states can not avoid in the process of integration. In 1980s, the western European countries tightened the liberal refugee policies one after the other, so the European defense began to appear. In 1990s, the east Soviet Union disintergrated and local wars eventually formed the European refugee problem. The EU strengthened the cooperation in refugee policy between its member states. From the Maastricht Treaty to the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Union formed a trend of a common restrictive refugee policy, constructed the EU digital fingerprint identification system, the European refugee fund and the minimum standards. The EU started to change from pure intergovernmental cooperation to supranational refugee policy. This article described the historical development track of the EU common refugee policy from he Maastricht Treaty to the Treaty of Amsterdam. It points out that the multi-level governance and decision-making mechanisms are restricted to a certain extent. And there is a dilemma from restricted refugee policy to the loose.
 
Chapter 1: the Maastricht Treaty and development of the EU refugee policy第1章:馬斯特里赫特條約和發展歐盟的難民政策
 
In 1992, the Maastricht Treaty signed. It stipulated explicitly the Justice and Home Affairs cooperation as the third pillar of the EU, including police cooperation between EU member states, immigration cooperation policy, refugee cooperation policy, Border and customs cooperation and judicial cooperation in civil and criminal areas. In the Justice and Home Affairs cooperation, there were four aspects of progress achieved. First, setting Justice and Home Affairs cooperation as the third pillar of the European Union. It also prescribed nine fields with the "common interest" in Part VI K.1. They were refugee policy, immigration policy, EU external border control, combating drug, international fraud prevention, civil and criminal judicial cooperation, customs cooperation, police cooperation and combating transnational crime and international terrorism; Second, the treaty established the EU citizenship; Third, the inclusion of human rights and fundamental freedoms of the treaty; Fourth, recognition of member states police cooperation under the framework of European criminal police organization. The signing of the Treaty marked the official start of the EU Justice and Home Affairs cooperation, greatly promoted the development of the EU Justice and Home Affairs cooperation. Therefore, the mode and extent of cooperation were finalized basically. 

1. “Safe country of origin” and “safe third country”
As more and more asylum seekers attempting to enter the EU, so after signing the Maastricht Treaty, the measures taken by EU were focused on how to define the rights of asylum first. The EU member states adopted Resolution on Manifestly Unfounded Applications for Asylum on November 30, 1992, which designed to prevent to abuse asylum procedures, especially speeding up the rejection procedure of “unreasonable” asylum applicants. "Unreasonable" here refers to either the applicants in their own countries can find refuge or applications involving the forged documents, false identities, etc.. Meanwhile, EU member states also unanimously adopted the resolution on the issue of the host third countries and determined the third countries not considered existing serious persecutions. That is “safe country of origin and safe third country”. According to these resolutions, the applicants from “safe countries” lost their rights of asylum. Thus, their applications were “unreasonable” and they would be expelled back to their countries of origin or the first safe countries they passed.  The resolution on the issue of the host third countries established a standard of safe country, according to the conditions of human rights, democracy and the stability, some countries were classified as safe third countries.  (責任編輯:anne)
頂一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
------分隔線----------------------------
發表評論
請自覺遵守互聯網相關的政策法規,嚴禁發布色情、暴力、反動的言論。
評價:
欄目列表
推薦內容

在線客服

售前咨詢
售后咨詢
微信號
Badgeniuscs
微信
英国代写_数学代写_c++/c代写_留学生代写怎么查出来?