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美國論文代寫:中美貿易摩擦之反傾銷剖析Anti-dumping analysis of Sino-US trade fr

時間:2012-05-07 11:02來源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:留學生論文 點擊:
反傾銷是世界貿易組織允許成員方采取的合法措施,而時至今日,它卻更多的成為一種推行貿易保護政策的強有力武器。WTO成立以來,美國是世界上搞反傾銷最多的國家之一,中國則成

美國論文<标题>代寫:中美貿易摩擦之反傾銷剖析Anti-dumping analysis of Sino-US trade friction

Abstract: The anti-dumping WTO allows members to take lawful measures, Today, it has become a powerful weapon for the implementation of trade protection policies. Since the WTO was established, the United States is the world to engage in anti-dumping up to one of the countries, China has become the primary goal of the country, resulting in China's exports suffered a serious impact. Through the introduction of U.S. anti-dumping current situation, analyze the causes and impact of U.S. anti-dumping, the proposed positive measures to be taken by the Chinese government and enterprises to respond to this situation.

<标题> Keywords: anti-dumping; Sino-US trade friction; impact; measures

代寫論文Introduction
In conditions of economic integration and trade liberalization, China's foreign trade developed rapidly. At the same time, along with trade frictions are increasing, mainly reflecting the anti-dumping on China's export products in some countries. The United States is the world's largest import market of goods, occupies a pivotal position in world trade. Meanwhile, the U.S. is the world's most frequent use of anti-dumping, China as the world's largest developing country with a substantial increase in U.S. exports in recent years, often a discordant note "- the United States Chinese goods frequent anti-dumping. Therefore, the crux of the Sino-US anti-dumping Analysis of the prospects we must now face the issue.

The essence of an anti-dumping and the status of the U.S. anti-dumping
(A) the substance of the anti-dumping
The so-called anti-dumping, a country's anti-dumping investigation authorities the implementation and the implementation of anti-dumping rules of behavior and process prevailing in the international 論文代寫governments of importing countries on imported dumped products in accordance with the law carry out investigations and impose anti-dumping duty one kind of legal system fundamentally eliminate price discrimination, safeguard fair competition and the normal trade order, effective measures to protect domestic industries. The original intention was to restrictions against dumping, anti-dumping within the limits of the work is reasonable, but once beyond this limit to be abused and become a kind of trade protection measures.
(B) of the U.S. anti-dumping status
The first anti-dumping cases from 1980 to date, until the end of 2006, U.S. anti-dumping cases has reached 115. These cases involved the chemical, pharmaceutical, metals and minerals, soil storage, light industry, machinery and other industries. 31 January 1, 1995 to 2005 12 month alone, the United States against Chinese exports initiated 61 from anti-dumping investigations, implemented 50 in anti-dumping measures, here on Chinese products to initiate anti-dumping investigations and the implementation of the number of anti-dumping measures up to countries, accounting for China over the same period suffered 13% and 14.79% of the total anti-dumping investigations and anti-dumping measures, China has suffered a major loss.
代寫畢業論文At present, from the United States, the Chinese anti-dumping product range point of view, showing a certain trend. Statistics show that 1989-1994 anti-dumping in China mainly concentrated in the capital-intensive products and labor-intensive products; 1995-2000 U.S. anti-dumping efforts to strengthen the capital-intensive products and resource-intensive products (anti-dumping capital intensive products accounted for over U.S. anti-dumping cases the total number of ratios in China rose 12 percent; and anti-dumping resource-intensive products accounted for over U.S. anti-dumping cases the total number of ratios in China rose by 7 percentage points), while labor-intensive products experienced The anti-dumping has been noticeably weakened (the anti-dumping and labor-intensive products accounted for over U.S. anti-dumping cases the total number of ratios in China fell by 18 percentage points); 2001-2006 in addition to labor-intensive products in China to strengthen the intensity of anti-dumping, but also anti-dumping capital-intensive products has been strengthened, the same period, significantly reduced anti-dumping efforts of resource-intensive products.
<标题> Overall, the U.S. anti-dumping charges against China's show such a trend, anti-dumping object is increasingly concentrated in the capital-intensive products; labor-intensive products and resource-畢業論文代寫intensive products encountered although the anti-dumping rate fluctuations, but the overall showing a downward trend.

Second, China and the United States anti-dumping impact on China
(A) positive impact on China's
1, and promote the improvement of the relevant domestic legislation
In recent years, anti-dumping in China increasingly trivial and this is associated with domestic enterprises and international trade environment, but does not rule out other countries to see the vulnerability of China's anti-dumping law that can take advantage of. In view of this, China has successively promulgated the "anti-dumping and countervailing regulations on Chinese exports abroad, anti-dumping responding to the provisions of a series of regulations, and continue to be improved it. However, due to China's anti-dumping regulations were promulgated in a short time, inevitably there are some problems in practice. So, the U.S. frequently to launch anti-dumping but also to some point of view, we learned a lot, making it the basis for the guidance of our country to improve the anti-代寫職稱論文dumping legislation.
2, increasing the income of working people in China
U.S. implementation of the anti-dumping in large part because China's exports of goods too cheap. Low value of the goods the negative impact of a large part of the workers. The export price is too low, leading to workers' labor also become "cheap". China is bound to be adjusted in order to reject the U.S. anti-dumping, export commodity prices, to avoid competition, lower prices this from happening, and product price increases also contributed to the growth of the value of Chinese labor.
(B) the negative impact on China
1, affect the export of Chinese products, the export commodities of non-normal reflux
U.S. anti-dumping restrictions of the normal development of the Chinese exports to China to reduce or even lose the market share of the countries concerned. For example: in 2004, due to the implementation of China's exports of shrimp anti-dumping, Shantou prawn exports to the U.S. decreased by $ 88 million in 1-9 months, the U.S. market almost lost.
China's exports of goods anti-dumping tax was blocked in foreign markets at the moment no time to transfer the market or sold back to the domestic market, the market hopeless case, is bound to transfer the chain reaction of anti-dumping. Resold the goods will impact the domestic market similar products or substitutes, resulting in the imbalance between supply and demand and price of the 碩士論文代寫domestic market, abnormal fluctuations affect domestic economic development, have a negative impact on the establishment and perfection of a step-by-step market economic system.
2, the U.S. anti-dumping in the international market with a demonstration effect
Practice, the special status of the United States in global economic development and international trade has a strong demonstration effect to anti-dumping. If the United States is a product of anti-dumping almost immediately lead to other countries and regions, followed by the anti-dumping. For example: in January 1994, the United States of garlic from China anti-dumping, December, Brazil filed the same '. Since then, the Chinese garlic was Canada, South Africa, the same "treatment". And similar commodities include sugar alcohol, bicycles, footwear, windshield, color TV sector goods, including bicycles, footwear and other goods has suffered scores of anti-dumping investigations.
3, and dampen the enthusiasm of foreign enterprises to invest in China, to expand the use of foreign investment adversely affect the
代寫碩士論文Chinese products are often subject to U.S. anti-dumping investigations, the demonstration effect has led to many investors had to withdraw the funds, turn to other countries. The result makes our country a lot of foreign-invested enterprises to gradually reduce the loss of overseas market share, damage the economic interests of enterprises with foreign investment, some companies forced into bankruptcy, discontinued, or conversions, thereby affecting the confidence of foreign investment in China on China's investment environment to improve and expand the use of foreign capital have a negative impact.

Third, the Chinese repeated the reasons for U.S. anti-dumping allegations
Frequent anti-dumping investigation on China, The main reason can be summarized into the following five areas:
(A) of Chinese exports to the U.S. and the trade surplus continues to expand
China's exports to the U.S. sharply from $ 24.711 billion in 1995 rose to $ 203.472 billion in 2006 to 8.2-fold increase in 12 years. In 2006, China surpassed Mexico as the United States after Canada's second-largest source of imports. Accordingly, the Chinese trade surplus with the United States rapidly expand from $ 85.93 100 000 000 in the 1995, a sharp rise to a $ 1442.63 one hundred million in 2006, 12 years to expand a 16.8-fold, prompted the United States frequently with the anti-dumping measures to protect domestic industries and the economy status.
(B) of my business Price Competition in the U.S. low-cost
代寫論文Because many of our textile, chemical, soil, livestock, and metallurgical products such as oversupply in the domestic market, in order to find the product market, some domestic companies had to be struggling to compete for export markets. A long time, mainly rely on low-cost competition to compete for export markets. The behavior of such low prices to a certain impact on related industries in the United States, causing great dissatisfaction of the related businesses in the United States, which led to the U.S. anti-dumping investigation on low prices products. Therefore, part of the export enterprises in China Price Competition in the U.S. low-cost lead to the direct cause of anti-dumping investigations.
(C) anti-dumping cases launched by the United States is too small
Between 1995 and 2006, China initiated anti-dumping investigations and anti-dumping measures the number of cases, respectively, only 20 cases and 16 cases. Studies show that, less use of anti-dumping means the country tend to become anti-dumping measures of the main target country, the contrary, if one country through appropriate to strengthen the use of anti-dumping protection means, and enable the abuse of anti-dumping countries to feel the threat of reprisals, in order to curb these countries of the country abuse the tendency of anti-dumping.
(D)論文代寫 of China's exports of goods with low added value
  China's exports to the U.S. Most of the products added value is high, a lower level of product differentiation products, such as bags, shoes, hats, small appliances, etc.. View from the world's industrial chain of these products with low technological content, there is strong substitutability, supply the lack of flexibility, coupled with the United States of such products at a comparative disadvantage in the employment industry linkage effect, under the pressure of structural adjustment, the United States reluctant to give up vested interests will inevitably make China's exports to U.S. sanctions and restrictions objects.
(E) The United States does not recognize China's market economy status
Non-market economy status of China has been one important reason for the United States and many other countries or regions frequently anti-dumping against China launched. At present, the 151 WTO member states, has 75 countries have recognized China's market economy status, but also nearly half of the Member States, particularly as anti-dumping China's major trading partner and China the main sponsors of the United States and European Union and other developed countries and developing countries such as India and Mexico, has yet to recognize China's market economy status. Because of this, since the WTO was established, China for 12 consecutive years to become the world encounter the number of anti-dumping cases up to the most affected countries.
(Vi) corporate existence of errors in the process of anti-dumping
WTO rules: only the prosecution of their business or industry organizations, the government can carry out anti-dumping investigations, and thus anti-dumping is the act, the respondent complained of the enterprise. If Litigation enterprises to give the respondent, the country had the right to export means that at least five years. Many Chinese enterprises do not want the respondent wants to "free rider" hope domestic rivals responding to their own sit back and enjoy, with predictable results.

代寫碩士論文Fourth, China and the U.S. anti-dumping case China should take measures
anti-dumping has become one of the biggest obstacle to China's export trade growth, which not only affects the Chinese export enterprises of their own interests, but also affect the overall interests of the country. Increasing trend in the face of the United States on China's anti-dumping complaints, whether it is related export enterprises, the national government departments should be given adequate attention, can not turn a blind eye to easily give up their rights, from different angles and aspects, common and effective manner prevention and response.
(A) The Government's response to
1, handle the expansion of exports
The rapid expansion of a country's exports continued huge trade surplus, susceptible to the importing countries, especially the deficit country's strong anti-dumping protection. From the international anti-dumping friction since the WTO was established, China's U.S. anti-dumping primary target countries and the reform period, China is closely related to the rapid expansion of U.S. exports continued huge trade surplus. In view of this, China as the world's third largest trading exporting countries should be dealt with to expand exports and to avoid or reduce the relationship between the experienced export target anti-marketing.
Regulate the export competition order to guide exports
The impact of policy in respect of the export trade can not be ignored and underestimated. Therefore, the Government should pay attention to the export trade and relevant aspects of policy development, to rationalize the foreign trade order, regulate the export competition order, from the source to contain the emergence of anti-dumping. While the implementation of the tendering system, intensify reform, economic restructuring, to improve the composition of exports, and improve the effectiveness of exports. Through product reform, cultivating diversified ownership of business organization, market-oriented property rights constraint mechanism to strengthen the constraints on enterprises, the enterprises have become a real market economy the main, in order to reduce state intervention in business. In addition, the strengthening of macro space and coordination of enterprise management, strict resist the low prices of export enterprises in order to avoid the export enterprises kill each other and lead to losing out overseas market share.
To curb the foreign anti-dumping abuse
<标题> As mentioned above, China and the United States less to launch anti-dumping is an important reason for the United States frequently anti-dumping against China launched by. In fact, since the WTO was established in 1995 to 2006, foreign anti-dumping anti-dumping in China with foreign obvious contrast. The same period in China for foreign initiated the anti-dumping investigation and the implementation of the anti-dumping measures were only 133 and 92 from, respectively, ranking the world's Article 9 and Article 7-bit, while the Chinese by the encounter of foreign anti-dumping investigations and cases of anti-dumping measures the number was, respectively, up to 536 from and from the 375, both among the global top spot. In view of this, on the one hand, China should be based on the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement, and to learn from the United States and other countries of anti-dumping policy and management experience, as soon as possible to improve the anti-dumping which is based on anti-dumping policy system; the other hand, should be appropriate to strengthen the anti-dumping protection means the use. This allows other countries to feel the threat of 代寫畢業論文retaliation, in order to effectively curb the momentum of these countries, the abuse of anti-dumping on Chinese exports.

4, the implementation of the strategy of market diversification
Do a good job in market research, market diversification strategy. China's current export market structure is quite reasonable, the object of the export trade are mostly concentrated in the United States and a few other developed country markets. In the future, as soon as possible to change this situation to develop effective policies and measures to accelerate the development of the Philadelphia market, the strategy of market diversification, to avoid the export market is too concentrated in the United States and other developed countries, to reduce the pressure on the export target countries related industries and market .
5, countermeasures against the U.S. "non-market economy country"
Non-market economy "status, the reality of the United States have been given to China, the Chinese government should be fully effective use of China's accession to the WTO Protocol", and with reference to foreign countries often economic criteria, specifying a real market economy standards in order to the respondent to provide a positive confrontation. Secondly, the anti-dumping case, the United States to China, apply to the rules of "non-market economy", may call upon the U.S. investigating authorities to examine whether an industry is a market-oriented industry, in accordance with the laws of the United States to win so as to exclude "non-market economy "rule. Again, make full use of the WTO settlement mechanism to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of our country. For implementation in the U.S. anti-dumping on China's unfair rules of "non-market economy", shall be submitted to the WTO dispute settlement mechanism.
6, strengthening personnel training and funds into
The negative responding mainly due to two things: one, the lack of professional legal talent. At present, China's general anti-dumping suits to hire foreign counsel. On the one hand we have to pay a high fee, on the other hand, the process of responding to a protest, often unable to fully reflect our intent is not conducive to our legitimate rights and interests. To this end, government departments, particularly education and scientific research institutions should be adapted to the needs of economic development, speed up the training expertise of a group of well versed in international trade rules;, the respondent costs. Higher anti-dumping costs to set up anti-dumping funds, even if the losing companies do not have to be paid in full by the entire industry to take part of, so that you can reduce the cost of responding, if in favor of the company in addition to need to be paid in full, the need to pay a certain percentage of remuneration, in order to maintain the benign use of the fund, the enterprise to obtain the future economic benefits, so this is a win-win outcome.
(B) The enterprises should take measures
1, the adjustment of product prices
The low price is the main reason for repeated anti-dumping of Chinese enterprises need to adjust the prices of export products through the development of a reasonable price to reflect the quality of the product. First, we must choose an appropriate pricing method. Second, the pricing of export products may be appropriate to consider the use of pricing strategies for different foreign markets to take the car to do pricing strategies. For example, the same product in developed countries, such as the United States, because of its high level of consumption, the price may be appropriate to set higher; can 代寫博士論文be developed based on its per capita income of some developing countries adapt to the price.
2, the enterprises should focus on branding
Chinese companies do not pay attention to brand building, the company's products if there is no sign companies would not be famous, would be difficult to have a foothold in the international market, not to mention the brand intangible assets to the enterprise. Generally have such a law would surely be no brand brand products for high prices. Therefore, Chinese enterprises should be considered to seize the opportunity, in conjunction with enterprise resources to significantly improve product quality, enhanced after-sales service, to build their own brand, so not only to meet domestic market demand, but also improves the quality of export products, thus changing the original image of the product . This can not only solve the dumping problem, enterprises in the long run is also very meaningful, it can enhance the visibility of the enterprise, to create a huge invisible wealth.
To understand the trend of foreign companies
Export enterprises should pay attention to the understanding of industrial policy and industry trends, global vision to do a good job in market research, and aimed to systematically develop the market and properly develop the quantity and price of export goods in order to avoid excessive violations the interests of local producers. We should recognize that the current increase in high-tech, export of high value-added products has become an urgent task in China's foreign trade development.
China's enterprises should actively apply for the fight for "individual treatment"
代寫碩士論文Due to China's market economy development, the U.S. Department of Commerce, China's market-oriented re-survey results, allowing the analysis of specific industrial sectors to determine whether the independent non-market economy. Therefore, the meaning of "individual treatment" is not limited to the export prices of different, but also to the calculation of normal value, so that our enterprises to grasp the greater initiative in the anti-dumping tax levied on. For example, in 1994 in a wooden pencil case arbitration, I had four exporters respectively tax rate. In recent years, Chinese enterprises autonomy to be more and more recognition of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Separate rate to become more reluctant to adopt the closed method of the U.S. Commerce Department.
5, with the anti-dumping investigations, and actively responding timely defense
U.S. anti-dumping, in addition to the Government should strengthen personnel training, to increase the respondent ability, positive responding is also essential. The face of anti-dumping allegations of corporate performance is very negative, the negative reaction of the respondent companies, in turn, fueled the anti-dumping allegations, the incentive for large-scale anti-dumping proceedings. To this end, after the anti-dumping cases, the most important is to correct understanding of anti-dumping and its consequences, actively respond, try to avoid the abuse of foreign anti-dumping measures. After the anti-dumping, relevant Chinese enterprises to actively cooperate with the anti-dumping investigations, and seek to maximize the defense the opportunity to.

Conclusion
In recent years, China's annual exports of products subject to the anti-dumping investigations has been among the world's top spot as the biggest victims of today's anti-dumping. The anti-dumping has 論文范文become an important part of Sino-US trade friction. Although the U.S. anti-dumping cash is the most typical anti-dumping legislation, but there are still many unfair practices in anti-dumping practice. This article on the current situation of Sino-US anti-dumping measures Analysis of the anti-dumping on China and its causes this as well as government and enterprises have to be taken. Find the crux of the problem, and by the government, the organic complexes, China will certainly get the ultimate victory of the anti-dumping war and to the world.

References
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[3] Pan Yue, the high instrument against the "anti-dumping" - International Experience and Chinese Countermeasures [M] Beijing: Central Party School Press ,2005:103 -104.
[4] Song Lifang. U.S. anti-dumping friction and its Implications for China [J]. Of Contemporary International Relations, 2008 (5) :55-57.
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