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代寫paper:幫助孩子獲得自尊

時間:2015-10-27 19:17來源:www.liuxuelw.org 作者:代寫paper 點擊:
本文介紹了自尊和自信的概念。分析缺乏自尊自信的原因,教會我們如何在生活中發現并幫助那些缺乏自尊和自信的人,倡導人們為孩子創造良好的生活和學習環境。
人類心理學的研究是對人類行為的不同模式,不同人的不同個人能力,不同的觀點和同樣情況下的不同反應的研究。自從西格蒙德佛洛伊德開辟此領域的研究,心理研究者的心里就充斥著巨大的好奇心。人類心理學最初被劃在綜合性的術語“個體性”的分類下,后來被證明是各種潛在因素的影響的產物。當心理研究深入探索這些影響人類心理和行為的因素時,發現自尊和自信是影響人們觀念和行為的兩個重要的因素(鮑姆2005)。這兩個概念開始激起心理學研究者的強烈興趣,大量的研究也自然而然地跟著出現(斯金納2005)。
 
自尊
 
簡單來說自尊就是自我評估,一個人對自己價值的評價(弗里森2005,雷2004,鮑姆2003,卡塔尼亞2003)。 自尊是一個人的內在東西,無法直觀地看見,卻在社會行為的和對某些情況的反應中體現得很明顯。一個人自尊心的強或弱都是通過行為和對情景的反應顯示出來的。一個人自我尊重是理想情況,缺乏自尊的原因也是值得關注的。這種缺乏自尊背后的原因,往往是受童年的經歷和周圍的環境的影響,其體現在人行為上的表現是多種多樣的。在一個探究缺乏自尊的原因的研究中,幫助他/她從缺乏自尊恢復到正常情況和找到解決他/她由于缺乏自尊而導致的行為異常的方法對心理研究來說都是值得研究的概念(斯金納2005)。
 
自信是一種基本的態度,使人對自己和自己的能力有一個現實的看法。它表現為樂觀,熱情,自信,自尊,獨立顯示,信任,情感成熟、有處理和承受批評的能力(Ward, Eastman 和Ninness 2009,Skinner 2005, Fantino, Stolarz-Fantino 和 Navarro 2003)。
 
Awareness of low self esteem
 
 
Ever since Sigmund Freud made forays into study of Human Psychology, the study of different patterns of human behaviour, abilities at different individuals in different individuals, different outlooks and different responses to the same situations by different individuals involved great inquisitiveness in the minds of the psychological researchers. What was initially categorized under a comprehensive term 'individual nature' later proved to be an effect of various underlying factors. As the psychological research dug deep into these factors that mould the human mind and behaviour, self esteem and confidence emerged to be two of the two important factors that influence the outlook and behaviour of a person (Baum 2005). The two concepts began commanding intense interest from psychological researchers and voluminous researches naturally followed (Skinner 2005).
 
1.自尊-1.Self Esteem
 
'Self Esteem' in simple words is one's own estimate and evaluation of one's worth (Friesen 2005, Moxley 2004, Baum 2003, Catania 2003). Self Esteem is something internal for a personal and is not expressive. It is manifest in social behaviour and responses to certain situations. Whether one has high self esteem or low self esteem is indicated by behaviour and situational response.While high self esteem in a person is desirable, low self esteem is a cause for concern. The reasons behind such low esteem can be many starting from childhood experiences and surrounding environment, its manifestation in person's behaviour can be varied. The study of the reasons behind one's low esteem, the methods to retrieve him/her from the State of low self-esteem to normal situation and his/her behavioural aberrations because of the low self esteem are interesting concepts for psychological research (Skinner 2005).
 
Confidence is basically an attitude which enables one to have a realistic perception of oneself and one's abilities. It is displayed by manifestations like optimism, enthusiasm, assertiveness, pride, independence, trust, emotional maturity and the ability to handle and withstand criticism (Ward, Eastman &Ninness 2009,Skinner 2005, Fantino, Stolarz-Fantino & Navarro 2003).
 
However talented one may be, confidence is the basic attribute which enables one to achieve or perform potential. It is normal to come across many talented people perform very poorly, repeatedly and continuously in their chosen field of activity and we also hear that they are lacking confidence (Catania 2003). Confidence is not inherited, but it is acquired. Lack of confidence is not permanent and can be driven away if addressed properly. Apart from being a personal attribute, confidence is also inspired by such factors as religion, culture, parents, gender and social class. While these are the normal factors which mould the confidence of a person, we also come across a handful of legendary persons, who brave many odds in life, but never allow their confidence to wane (Skinner 2005). (責任編輯:cinq)
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