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美國文學作品《湯姆索亞歷險記》淺論A brief Analysis of The Adventure of Tom Sa

時間:2012-04-18 11:26來源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:留學生論文 點擊:
湯姆索亞歷險記是馬克吐溫現實主義代表作,在美國文學史上具有很高的文學價值。它不單單是為了描述童年時期孩子們單純美好,純真善良,調皮機智的一面,而是重在描述19世紀20年
美國文學作品《湯姆索亞歷險記》淺論A brief Analysis of The Adventure of Tom Sawyer Abstract:The Adventure of Tom Sawyer is the representative work by Mark Twain for realism and has a high literary value in the history of United States. It's not just in order to describe the beautiful childhood or children’s simple, pure, mischievous characters, but describe all aspects of life of United States in the 1820s. It reflects Mark Twain’s dissatisfaction for the social situation at that time. This article gives a brief analysis of the author’s attitude to the school, religious, culture and morals then, and talks about some feelings that touch the very core of my heart. Keywords: social norm; school education; religious and moralities; happiness “The adventures of Tom Sawyer” is the masterpiece of Mark Twain’s realism, it describes the life of the people lived in a small village on the Mississippi River in the 19th century. We can know the poor, rich, church, school, religion, law and every aspects of the American’s life at that time through this book. A lot of people regard this writing as an interesting book for children and they feel there is no deep culture concept behind it. Actually it is not written for children but for adults, because only can adults understand the writer’s real intention and the valuable literary meaning under the surface of children’s naiveness and naughtiness. I would like to appreciate this great work as follows: The most impressive plot in the book is at the beginning: Aunt Polly forced Tom to plaster the fence; Tom got lots of toys instead of paying any physical work. This fence not only stands for the punishment but also has its own symbolic meaning. Inside the fence, there are rules imposed by society, family and school. No matter who break the rule, he need to pay for that. Outside the fence, there is freedom and dream with no one can interfere and control, that is a paradise with no trammels and restraint. Once someone come back from outside, he becomes a member of the society, certainly, he must obey the society orders and submit to the authorities of parent, teacher, religion and civilization. This tangible fence is a true proof that Tom want to escape the society, it also marks the boundary between the real world and the dreamed world. Meanwhile, the action of repainting the dilapidated fence also means the American’s past has been concealed. For example, the national questions, the culture conflicts and other problems in America. The past has gone and everything begins anew, which marks the beginning of a new era in America. Furthermore, on the surface, Tom felt very distressed when aunt asked him to plaster the fence, since other peers are having a good time in playing and swimming. However, he makes others rush to serve for him by taking advantage of his intelligence. For the moment this boring and tedious work becomes the source of happiness in the eyes of other children. The fence is the best integration point of the society binding and the liberty; it is the place where the laborious work harmonizes well with the fine entertainment. So, to be frank, it is also a method that author comes up to solve the problems between work and play. That is, as long as people don’t feel they are compelled to do something, then the hard work change to another way of pleasure. Tom is granted to be a symbol of two different spirits, one is the free spirits, and another is the capitalism spirits. Tom tries his best to get away from suppression of rules in the capitalism society, but at the same time he gains the status and wealth from the capitalism society. We can see this fence has the function of signifying the real world, the more important function of it is the culture value and it is a divide between order and free, civilization and barbarousness. It reflects the social values of work and leisure at that time as Tom unites the tiresome work of painting the fence with enjoyment. It is said that the writings of Mark Twain always accompany with happiness, adventures, motivations, cheerfulness and humorousness, which can best symbolize the American peculiar characters. This is the main reason that he is respected as “the master of humor”. Therefore, Mark Twain adapts humorousness, exaggeration, satire and some other writing styles in The Adventure of Tom Sawyer. In the colonial period, the Church in the United States played a great role in people’s life, especially for their daily lives. A person who did not belong to any Church groups will be in a status of being cast aside, nobody liked to communicate with him, even his families would suffer from other’s discrimination. At that time, pastor was the most significant adviser in American’s daily life and in all kinds of affairs. A great number of books published by the Church was widely spread and was celebrated by centuries, so religion for the United States has a profound impact on every aspect. Yet, at the turn of the 19th century and 20th century periods, as the situation of isolation among rural disappeared, the authorities of religious systems were shocked in many ways. From then on, the Church has gradually lost control of public customs. Moreover, priest had the most influential power in all the issues of secular events and religious faith in the past, but that influential power is also lost at the present. 美國論文代寫范文—In The Adventure of Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain uses the irony writing style to criticize the hypocritical morals in society. In the classroom, the way of education and encouragement to the students is closely related to reciting the Bible. The teacher demands the students to recite the plenty of enough Scripture before they receive the highest prize. It is funny that Tom does not recite any Scriptures, just with a form of barter; he easily gets the right of receiving the award and becomes the center of attention, his behaviors make others, the so-called "good students", feel very angry and jealous, but he wins the admiration of the girl he likes by showing himself. In fact, we can see that Tom achieved the honor and prize by cheating or by playing some tricks. Teachers have known that Tom is a defiant and unruly, naughty, disobedient, ignorant and incompetent boy, so it is impossible for him to collect the enough volume of card. But the teacher still lets Tom come to the award. Eventually, when Tom was questioned, he knew nothing and made a big joke. All of these things are the irony of disciplines of bourgeois children’s education and the contempt to the uncivilized culture at that time. All of these things are the social disadvantages of the capitalism development. Similarly, the town’s people think that Tom and Huck were drowned. They went to the church, listened the priest delivering a memorial speech as much of the solemn. In reality Tom is very naughty, likes hoaxes, and makes people feel a headache, while Pastor’s words about Tom are exactly the opposite. The memorial speech is so exaggerative and pretended that there is no good faith at all, which in itself is a ridiculous thing. Yet it is a greater irony to this vulgar hypocrisy of religious ceremonies when Tom and Huck appeared in the Church. In this work, Tom has his own ideals, that is, he wants to be a pirate; he wants to be a hero and then proudly return to the town; he wants to be a man who is admired by everyone. Tom's character also represents the American’s character: they are yearning for freedom and a better life, they are pursuing equality and democracy, they are very curious about the adventures and the future and they are not afraid of any hardships or difficulties. Over the years, the United States is the most ambitious of any other countries; over the years, the United States wants to become the leader country in the world; over the years, the United States will inevitably wipe out the barriers on its way to success. Thus many of the plots in the work reflect the social realities of the United States. Though the deeper meaning of this work is describing the lingering social ethos, hypocritical religious, and rigid school education in the United States at that time, Mark Twain apparently describe the innocent, pure and simple, brave and upright children with their happy childhood on the surface of this book. He takes me back to the age of innocence, takes me back to the era without interpersonal disputes between fame and fortune, an era of no suspicion, no cheat, no intrigue. We lost ourselves after we are grown up. Originally we had edges and corners and pursued our own character; however, finally we became the same after we walked into the society. Work, study and life pressures make us have no much time to think about ourselves and think about how to get more happiness, gradually we even can not find the kindness heart of ourselves. The so-called reality, we can not see it or touch it but can not leave it, it is so complicate that we are hard to find the sincerely friendship and romantic love. Every day we strive to feed ourselves. When we are too busy to find ourselves, we need to stop and rest. We need a book like The Adventure of Tom Sawyer to purify our thoughts and it can take us back to those sweet childhood memories. Furthermore it can get us relax as well as remind us: do not become a secular person and do not forget the goal and the dream. Everyone should keep their principles and learn to enjoy daily life and share their happiness with others. Consequently our life will be more meaningful and colorful!       
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